Willard Asylum for the Insane is a former state hospital in Willard, New York. It became the Willard State Hospital in 1890, the Willard Psychiatric Center in 1974 and the Willard Drug Treatment Center in 1995.
The State Asylum for the Acute Insane opened in Utica in 1843. 1 Patients were only allowed to be committed at Utica for two years and if they were not cured during that period, they were returned to the institution they derived from. In the majority of cases, that was the county poorhouse.
The Superintendents of the Poor asked the state legislature for assistance in 1856. 1 An investigation was started but it was not until April 30, 1864 that the legislature passed an act authorizing Dr. Sylvester D. Willard to investigate the condition of the insane in poorhouses, almshouses, insane asylums and other institutions in the state. A questionnaire was crafted and sent to each county judge. The judge, in turn, selected a member of the medical profession to carry out an inspection of the facilities in their county. It was discovered that in 55 counties, not including New York and Kings County, that there were 1,355 cases, nearly all of them chronic. Most of the patients were in a condition of neglect.
A bill was soon introduced to correct the abuse. 1 Named the Willard Bill, it was signed into law on April 8, 1865. It authorized the establishment of the State Asylum for the Chronic Insane to be acknowledged as the Willard Asylum for the Insane. It was to be named for Dr. Beck of Utica, but shortly before the act passed, Dr. Willard died of typhoid fever. It was decided to name the complex after him.
The new Willard Asylum for the Insane had three goals: 1
- Transfer all chronic insane patients from the county facilities to Willard;
- Transfer all discharged chronic cases from the State Lunatic Asylum at Utica to Willard; and
- That all recent cases of less than one year duration be sent to the State Lunatic Asylum at Utica.
Several counties had asylums approved by a special act of the legislature that were exempted from Willard, including Monroe, which later became the Rochester State Hospital. 1
Drs. John P. Gray of Utica, Julian P. Williams of Dunkirk and John B. Chapin of Canandaigu, formerly of Utica, were selected to serve on the Willard site selection committee. 1 Dr. Gray resigned the next year and was replaced by Dr. Lymond Congdon of Jacksonville. The trio were instructed to secure a site on land owned by the state or on which the state had a lien.
The state had a lien in the form of a $40,000 mortgage on the Ovid farm and buildings of the New York State Agricultural College. 1 The state acquired 670 acres for the college in 1857, which opened on December 5, 1860. 4 It was the first agricultural college in the nation. The Civil War, which began the in the following year, caused many of its students to leave for the military. It closed in 1862.
Ezra Cornell, who had started a university bearing his name in Ithaca, desired to relocate the New York State Agricultural College to his campus. 4 He was ultimately successful in that endeavor.
The former college campus was set to be auctioned in December 1865. 1 On the day of the auction, the committee came by train from Canandaigua and acquired the college and its grounds for the location of the new Willard Asylum for the Insane.
The site plan for Willard was based off of the Kirkbride plan. 1 The Kirkbride plan, designed by Dr. Thomas S. Kirkbride, Superintendent of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, was aided by Philadelphia architect Samuel Stone.
Construction on the main building, the Chapin House, began by Selim Sears of Buffalo in July 1866. 1 Designed by H.M. Wilcox of Buffalo in the French empire style, it was 70 feet by 84 feet, three-stories high with a basement and center cupola.
Upon completion in 1869, 21 the Chapin House housed the administration and medical offices for Willard. 1 It boasted curving corridors on each side for the two three-story wards, which were narrower but far longer, at 171 feet by 40 feet with a spacious 12 foot hallway in the center. Each ward had the capacity for 125 patients. The South Wing was for women, the North Wing for men. The rear of the main building contained a kitchen with a chapel and auditorium above, and behind that, boilers, laundry and bakery.
The first patients were received via a steamboat on Geneva Lake on October 12, 1869. 1
For some time, nearly all admissions to Willard came by boat. 1 The first act for the incoming patients was to remove their irons and chains on the dock. They were then admitted, bathed, examined, dressed and fed, a sharp contrast where they were often flogged, doused, and pulleyed (hanging by various appendages for long periods of time) at their prior locations.
The first patient, Mary Rote, was noted as being “deformed and demented,” having been chained for ten years without a bed and clothing in a cell in the Columbia County almshouse. 1 Three more patients, all male, arrived in irons in chicken crates, 3½-feet square.
By the end of 1869, there were 125 men and 450 women, far outstripping capacity. 1 At the end of 1870, there were nearly 700 patients.
To resolve the overcrowding issue, it was decided to renovate the 11-year-old abandoned Agricultural College building for 200 higher-functioning female patients. 1 When it was reconstructed in 1886 to remove fire hazards, the top two floors were removed and additions were built to the north. It reopened in 1887 as the Branch, a women’s infirmary. It was later renamed to Grandview in the early 1900’s.
Three more wards were added to the South Wing for women, and a request was made to the state legislature for a North Wing extension for men. 1 A inquiry for $200,000 was also made to build five detached buildings to accommodate 200 male patients, overhaul the docks and piers to make it easier to unload supplies and coal, and to establish roads and water pipes.
The first of the detached buildings to open, Maples/Sunnycroft, opened in 1872, followed by the Pines in 1876. 1 Sunnycroft opened in 1877 and Bleakhouse and Edgemere opened not long after.
By 1877, Willard housed 1,003 patients over 22 buildings 4 and was the largest asylum in the United States. 1 It still suffered from overcrowding, and in 1884, Hermitage, a male infirmary, was added.
The hospital started a training school for attendants in 1886, graduating a class of two on December 20, 1888. 13
Willard Asylum for the Insane was renamed Willard State Hospital in 1890 to reflect its growing function to include acute and chronic patients. 1 By the close of the 19th century, Willard’s census approached 2,000.
Early patients, if well enough, were allowed to work on the asylum farm and in various trades. Nearly 475 acres were under cultivation by the time Willard opened in 1869. 1 Supporting facilities, such as a canning and evaporating plant, were built to support the farming operations.
- A large amount of beef was produced, increasing from 4,714 pounds in 1880 to 28,510 pounds in 1934.
- A piggery opened in the same year, producing 4,400 pounds of pork; by 1880, that had increased to 50,750 pounds.
- Poultry operations were concentrated near the south side of Willard, which produced 2,324 pounds of dressed chicken and 1,503 dozen eggs in 1937.
- The dairy produced 1,800 quarts of milk when it first opened, increasing to over 18,000 quarts by 1880. A pasteurizing plant was later installed, followed by milking machines in 1925.
- By early 1870, it was reported that 3,429 pieces of clothing were produced. Thousands of sheets, towels and pillow covers were crafted, along with aprons, nightgowns, dresses, skirts and collars.
- By 1912, when shoe-making machinery had been acquired, 2,579 pairs of boots and shoes were made.
- A tin shop produced over 75 different items, from bird cages to cups, trays and pipes.
The state Department of Mental Hygiene, on orders from the governor, announced in late 1960 that Willard’s farming operations be closed. 1 Other work was ordered to be stopped in 1973 when the courts ruled that patients at institutions were covered by the Fair Labor and Standards Act and could not be forced to work for free. 9
With Willard isolated from major towns, efforts were made to entertain patients and employees. With money saved from the sale of hides, tallow and bones from the asylum farm, an organ was purchased for the chapel and auditorium. 1 In 1883, the Lodge was built that included an auditorium on the first floor and rooms for male employees upstairs. It later housed quarters for the Nurses Training School.
Ground was broken for a dedicated entertainment and religious facility, Hadley Hall, in April 1892. 1 Named after long-time Chairman of the Board, Judge Sterling G. Hedley, it opened in 1893. The old chapel was renovated into quarters for women employees while the former amusement hall was turned into more rooms for male employees.
Calisthenics, games, recitations and crafts were held in Hadley Hall to occupy the patient’s time. 1 By 1925, occupational therapy was being emphasized, followed by recreational therapy by the 1960’s. A swimming pool was constructed and a fishing dock along the lake was added. A golf course was laid out on part of the former asylum farm.
Willard acquired a passenger yacht, the “Lon Sellen,” in 1889. 1 It was used as a ferry between Willard and Dresden to pick up patients. A request was made in 1890 for a steam yacht to carry 60 to 75 passengers, which arrived in 1892 from Springstedts of Geneva. The use of steamboats declined as the railroad and then the automobile gained ground and was discontinued around 1914. 1
A request for $10,000 was made to the legislature for the construction of a 2½ mile narrow-gauge railroad to connect the main building of Willard to Branch in 1876. 1 Grading completed not long after the legislature approved of the sum and a three-foot gauge rail was laid at a cost of $9,443. The hospital then requested a locomotive and six freight and coal cars, which was delivered in 1878.
The completion of the Geneva and Ithaca Railroad from Geneva to Ithaca in 1873 (becoming the Lehigh Valley Railroad Ithaca Branch in 1876) led to steamboat traffic on Geneva Lake to dwindle. 1 Many of the freight and passenger hauls that were once done by boat could now be completed by rail at a fraction of the cost and time. It impacted Willard as most of the supplies the hospital received were by boat. The nearest connection to the railroad from Willard was Hayt Corners.
Willard requested permission from the state in 1881 to connect their narrow gauge railroad to the Geneva and Ithaca Railroad, a distance of approximately 4¼ miles. 1 The request was approved and grading for the new route was completed by Willard’s patients. Ties and rails were laid by the railroad.
When it was complete, passenger trains from Willard were operated twice a day to Hayt’s Corners connecting with local trains to Geneva and Ithaca. 1 Special church trains were run to Ovid each Sunday.
The Lehigh Valley Railroad found the grades along the Ithaca Branch to be rather unforgiving, especially for heavy freight hauls. The railroad constructed a route along Geneva Lake with gentler hill grades which became Lehigh Valley Railroad’s Buffalo Division. To accommodate the Lehigh Valley, Willard reconstructed their railroad to standard gauge and a connection to Willard was made west of Ovid in 1892. 1
The Willard branch of the Lehigh Valley was used until 1936. 1
Despite many tries to the contrary, there was no one-shot-cure for mental illness. Early on, Willard attempted to experiment with hydrotherapy by the way of Turkish baths and other equipment with no success. 1 In the late 1890’s, thyroid extract was tested on patients with no improvement in the patients outcome.
Mental disease caused by syphilis was treatable with arsenicals and malaria with considerable success. After Penicillin was introduced, the disease was largely controlled. 1 Insulin shock treatment and Metrazol came into use in 1937, replaced with electroshock therapy a few years later. By 1942, there were 1,443 electroshock treatments given with varying degrees of success.
It was not until the mid-1950’s that a new class of drugs, referred to as tranquilizing agents, was introduced at Willard. 1 Individual and group psychotherapy was used in conjunction with tranquilizers and anti-depressants
Willard was the first hospital to institute a full-time rehabilitation service. 1 It included:
- The “Little House,” developed to simulate a home environment and motivate the patient to leave the hospital.
- The Circle Shop, a store managed by patients, where customers could purchase donated articles using “chips.”
- A halfway house, which provided a transitional, semi-independent living area for patients that were transitioning to the community.
- Rehabilitation recreation, which gave a year-round opportunity for patients to develop recreational interests.
- A sheltered workshop to provide realistic work situations.
- An educational program for adolescent high school students who are patients.
- Employment at Willard at regular rates of pay.
The issues of overcrowding in the 19th century were not completely eliminated by the dawn of the 20th century, despite numerous building additions. Many felt that the overcrowding issues at Willard negatively affected patient treatment. Congress established the Joint Commission on Mental Illness and Health in 1915, which came at a time when tranquilizers and anti-psychotic drugs started to be used. 1
Willard continued to grow, and expanded with a pavilion for tuberculosis women in 1905. 1 Elliott Hall, a new admission and administration building, was added in 1931, followed by the Birches Building in 1934.
In 1946, with the end of World War II, Willard developed a plan to demolish all of the old buildings and rebuild. 1 Nearly $5.6 million was set aside for the project but it was realized that the grand scheme would be far more expensive than expected and the plan was dropped.
The Hatch Building, designed to hold 300 patients, opened in 1956. 19 22 Sunnycroft (also referred to as Building 44 15), the first of the detached buildings to open, was renovated in 1962 at a cost of $919,000. 1 15 The mid-1960’s saw the demolition of a number of outdated and deteriorated buildings and the modernization and renovation of others. 19
Planning for a new $650,000 administration building began in February 1968. 19 Cortland architect Werner Seligmann was selected to draw up plans for a two-story structure to house 60 to 70 staff members and a medical record library. 18 It would replace the circa 1869 Chapin House that was minimally used. Only the center portion and small sections of the north and south wings were used for office space with the remainder in a deteriorated condition.
It was decided in July to locate the new administration building on the northwest slope of the lawn below the Grandview Building. 18 Bids were sought by February 1969 with the building projected to open by July 1, 1970, 18 however, it did not open until 1974. 21
In 1974, Willard State Hospital was renamed to the Willard Psychiatric Center. 3
Renovations to the Hatch Building commenced in December 1977 and was completed in early 1979. 22 The $3 million project entailed reconfiguring the rooms so that they would hold 120 patients in residential suites versus dormitories, adding a patient library, therapy and counseling areas, offices, and housing for the hospital’s museum. Additionally, two medical-surgical acute care wards were combined into one in Elliott Hall, leaving three other wards for continuing medical-surgical care. The alcoholic rehabilitation unit was moved to the South Home, which was where the School of Nursing was located at.
The Chaplin House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in March 1975. 23 The state opened demolition bids on October 1978, although those bids were held off until 1980 when it was finally razed.
Sampson State School
Feeling pressures of World War II, President Roosevelt established Sampson Naval Base in Seneca County on May 17, 1942. 1 6 After spending $50 million, the naval base opened in February 1943. 20 It boasted a capacity for 35,000 personnel and included 110 male barracks, two women barracks, five drill halls, warehouses, a brig, officers’ clubs, post exchanges, firehouses, and a theater. It also included a chapel with a rotating altar for Catholic, Protestant and Jewish services, the only one of its type in the nation. The base also included a 1,500-bed hospital, with 44 wards and 8 operating units. 20
In the fall of 1945, with the conclusion of World War II, Sampson Naval Base was retired as a training center. 20 The end of the war posed a problem for returning servicemen seeking an education, with ad-hoc educational facilities sprouting up across the state, all straining with burgeoning enrollments. Governor Thomas Dewey dedicated Sampson to the Associated Colleges of Upper New York in 1946, with some of the buildings reused for the college. The Sampson Naval College lasted until June 1949 6 when the college closed due to waning demand. Afterwards, the warehouses were used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to store wheat and beans. 20
The former Sampson Naval Base hospital was taken over by the state in December 1947, 6 with the idea to repurpose it for 1,000 mildly psychotic elderly patients connected with Willard. 1 16
In October 1950, state officials gathered at Lake Placid ready to sign a lease converting Sampson into a state park. 20 At the last moment, via telegram, came a message from the undersecretary of the navy halting the lease agreement. With the Korean War looming, the Sampson Naval Base became the Sampson Air Force Base in November 1950. Much of the base was in shambles, having been minimally maintained since its closure 1945, although it opened in January 1951 to Air Force trainees. 6 20
Nearly 400 patients from Willard that were housed at Sampson’s hospital were transferred to other facilities in March, with many going to Willowbrook State School on Staten Island. 1 17 Willowbrook, a former veterans hospital, refurbished a building to be used for Sampson patients. 17 The Sampson hospital reopened in April, becoming the second largest in the Air Force. 6
It was not until 1953 that a landing field was constructed. 20
Sampson Air Force Base closed on June 30, 1955 after the Korean War concluded. 6 State officials looked into reusing the former hospital at the closed air force base as an annex to Willard in 1957. 16 It appropriated $650,000 on September 24, 1958 to renovate the hospital to house the Sampson Annex at Willard State Hospital for psychotic elderly patients and the mentally ill from other overburdened state schools. 1 12
Governor Nelson Rockefeller unveiled plans to purchase 1,251 acres of the shuttered Air Force Base for state park in 1960. 20 Sampson State Park opened in 1964.
In 1970, Sampson separated from Willard, becoming the Sampson State School for the Mentally Retarded. 11 12 Sampson State School was phased ordered to close on April 19, 1971 over budget cuts. At the time of the announcement, there were 401 employees and more than 700 adults at Sampson. All were to be moved to state schools at Newark, South Seneca and Rome. The State School was closed for good on October 1, 1971. 6 20
The state of New York operated 30 state hospitals with more than 120,000 patients by 1950. 3 Willard was one of the largest in the state, with 4,076 patients, 1,100 employees and 65 buildings in 1955. 4
In 1955, the Joint Commission on Mental Illness and Health, working along with the American Psychiatric Association, the Council on Mental Health of the American Medical Association, and 20 other organizations, began work on a report to analyze the mental health care system in the United States. 2 Much of the information that was gathered had never been organized in a national database.
It was recognized that there wasn’t enough scientific progress in research of mental illnesses, that a cultural lag in the treatment of the mentally ill existed, and that the teaching of modern attitudes and methods in psychiatry had long been unprogressive. 2 The report, when released in 1960, 1 noted that there was much improvement in the treatment of the mentally ill, primarily from increased knowledge of the psychological issues derived from psychodynamic psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and the results of physiological treatment methods, including electroshock therapy, insulin shock, surgery and tranquilizers. It also noted that outpatient facilities, day hospitals and home-based care plans were being tested. 2
The report led to the passage of the Mental Retardation Facilities and Community Mental Health Construction Act of 1962. 1 Federal funding was secured so that community mental health centers could be established, which could provide in-patient and out-patient care, emergency treatment, consultation and education. The goal of the Act was to reduce institutional censuses by 50% by 1982. At the time of the Act’s passage, Willard had 2,582 patients while the Sampson State School had 855. 1
Patient numbers dramatically declined at Willard, and by the end of the year in 1977, Willard had just 890 patients. 3 It declined further to 700 in 1981. 4
The last class graduated from the Willard School of Nursing on June 2, 1978. 13 The school was closed by order of the state Department of Education after it found deficiencies in faculty educational qualifications and in clinical facilities and the curriculum. The decision was made based on a report in 1973 where recommendations were given but never acted upon. 14
Under a preliminary plan released by the state Office of Mental Health on January 29, 1992, the state proposed to close Willard Psychiatric Center within four years. 8 The last residents, totaling just 130, were moved to other inpatient and outpatient facilities in mid-April 1995 and the hospital officially closed on May 10. 4
Although Willard closed as a psychiatric center, Governor George E. Pataki proposed to convert the campus into the state’s first corrections facility for non-violent criminals convicted of a second drug- or alcohol-related crime. 4 The $8.6 million project, with 750 inmates with a capacity of up to 1,000, and 500 employees, opened October 1, 1995 as the Willard Drug Treatment Center. 7
While some claimed the new Willard facility was a great success, more than 70 percent of Willard’s population comprised of parole violators. 10 Parolees directly sentenced to Willard only composed about 23 percent. It also only had about 63 counselors, psychologists and teachers versus 179 guards in 1997, with state officials conceding that it had failed to meet staffing standards.
The Birches Building now houses parolee housing, classrooms, vocational shops and offices. 1 Hatch is used for housing and and serves as the DTC administration building.