The Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railroad (CH&D) was a railroad that existed between Cincinnati to Dayton, Ohio via Hamilton. It was chartered on March 2, 1846 as the Cincinnati & Hamilton Railroad 8 and was opened between Cincinnati and Dayton on September 18, 1851.7
The CH&D acquired the Dayton & Michigan Railroad in 1863, the Atlantic & Great Western Railroad (later part of the Erie Railroad) in 1865, the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad, the Cincinnati, Richmond & Chicago (formerly the Eaton & Hamilton) in 1869, the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Indianapolis (formerly the Junction Railroad) in 1872, and the Cincinnati, Dayton & Chicago Railroad in 1891. In March of that year, it acquired the Cincinnati, Dayton & Ironton Railroad. Finally, the Cincinnati & Dayton Railway (formerly the Louisville, Cincinnati & Dayton) became part of the CH&D on July 12, 1895. The CH&D sold the Hamilton to Richmond, Indiana route, part of the former Eaton & Hamilton, to the Cincinnati & Richmond Railroad, part of the Pennsylvania Railroad, in 1886. By 1902, the CH&D operated over 640 miles of trackage.
The CH&D acquired most of the stock of the Pere Marquette Railroad in 1904, controlling it until 1907. In 1905, the Erie briefly controlled the CH&D. In July 1909, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (B&O) agreed to purchase the CH&D in approximately seven years, completing the purchase at auction on June 7, 1917.
American Midland Railroad
The American Midland Railroad, which became the Findlay, Fort Wayne & Western (FFW&W) in June 1890, was opened between Fort Wayne, Indiana and Findlay, Ohio on January 1, 1895,10 mainly as a result of the natural gas boom of that region.12 On November 1, 1901, the CH&D acquired the FFW&W, but it was sold at foreclosure on July 7, 1903 to the Cincinnati, Findlay & Fort Wayne Railway. The CH&D leased the line back on November 1 but the FFW&W once again went into receivership on July 2, 1914. The CH&D lease was cancelled. By March 4, 1918, the never-successful passenger operation was cut to tri-weekly rides. A year later, the FFW&W was abandoned.
Cincinnati, Findlay & Fort Wayne Railroad
Also built because of Findlay’s natural gas boom, the New York, Mahoning & Western Railroad was chartered in 1887 to serve the region, but nothing came about until the 78-mile Cincinnati, Findlay & Fort Wayne Railroad (CF&FW) opened in 1895 between Findlay’s Toledo & Ohio Central Railway West Division and Fort Wayne, Indiana’s Pennsylvania and Walbash lines.13 Originally the Findlay, Fort Wayne & Western Railway, the CF&FW was operated by the CH&D when it was reorganized in 1901.
In 1904, an extension eastward was completed to the CH&D Delphos-Dayton branch, originally a part of the TC&St.L. After the B&O purchased the CH&D in 1916, the TC&St.L connection was removed and by 1919, most of the CF&FW was abandoned. The section from the Cincinnati Northern at Haviland to Grover Hill was removed a year later.
McComb, Deshler & Toledo Railroad
The 9-mile McComb, Deshler & Toledo Railroad (MD&T) was incorporated on June 2, 1879 with a capital of $20,000 with the purpose of building a line from McComb to Deshler, Ohio.9 10 The MD&T entered into an agreement with the Dayton & Michigan Railroad (part of the CH&D) to grade and tie the line,11 while the MD&T would be responsible for the laying of the track and operating it perpetually as a branch of the CH&D. Grading began in early 1880 and on November 24, the first train arrived in McComb. The MD&T was later extended to Findlay.
Chessie abandoned the line from Deshler to McComb in the 1980s; the remainder to Findlay became a part of the Findlay Northwestern Railroad.
Toledo, Cincinnati & St. Louis Railroad
The Toledo, Cincinnati & St. Louis Railroad (TC&St.L) was a narrow-gauge line that was constructed from 1879 to 1883. It was acquired by the CH&D and converted to standard-gauge to serve as the Delphos-Dayton branch. In 1904, the CH&D was extended north to junction the Cincinnati, Findlay & Fort Wayne Railroad (CF&FW), a CH&D-controlled line that extended from Findlay, Ohio west to Fort Wayne, Indiana. The CF&FW connection was removed after the B&O acquisition, and the TC&St.L was abandoned in 1923.
Toledo, Delphos & Burlington Railroad
The Toledo, Delphos & Burlington Railroad extended from Toledo, via Delphos, Dayton, Chillicothe and Wellston to Dean. From Dean, it proceeded south to Ironton via the Iron Railroad, which later became part of the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railroad (DT&I).
In 1878, the Dayton and Southeastern (D&SE), later known as the CH&D Wellston Division, proposed a line southeast of Dayton towards Wellston.3 The D&SE was completed in this regard in December.1
In Jackson County, the railroad followed Pigeon Creek from Vinton County to Byer, and arrived at Coalton from the northwest.3 At Coalton, the railroad overlapped with the Springfield, Jackson and Pomeroy Railroad, which later became part of the DT&I.
The D&SE opened up the town to the coalfields north and northwest of the city, which spurred the development of additional coal mines in the region. The first mines along the route opened in the vicinity of Glen Neil, with spurs going to the east and west of the railroad.3 At the northern edge of Coalton was one of the most famous mines in the region. Known as the Patterson Mine, it was owned by the Southern Ohio Coal and Iron Company – also known as the S.O.C.&I. mine, or “Sock-In-Eye.” John Patterson used the world’s first cash register at the Patterson mine’s company store, and led to the founding of the National Cash Register Co. in Dayton. In 1893, the Superior Coal Company purchased the mine and enlarged it, becoming the biggest underground mine in the county.3
The line was extended east to Wellston in 1880.3 At Glen Roy, the Ohio Southern took a southern route into Wellston via Ironton Junction, and served several shaft mines.
In 1895, the Wellston & Jackson Belt Railway, later known as the Hocking Valley Railroad Jackson Branch, was constructed from McArthur Junction, near Dundas to Wellston and Jackson, paralleling the Ohio Southern.3
The first passenger train was run between Dayton and Wellston on December 28, 1893, running until February 1933.
The Wellston roundhouse and yard were discontinued on January 18, 1961 and the freight station was closed on February 3, 1976, with all freight movements handled at Oak Hill.1
In 1982, the CH&D was abandoned from Dayton to Wellston.
South to Ironton
The Toledo, Cincinnati and St. Louis Railroad (TC&St.L) was completed in 1882 as a narrow gauge line from Ironton Junction south of Wellston to Bartles/Dean Junction,6 providing service to Kitchen, Gallia, Hoadley and Olive. The line was not successful and went through several receiverships and acquisitions beginning in 1884 TC&St.L eventually became part of the CH&D in 1891.5 The railroad was converted to standard gauge in 1887.
The line south of Ironton Junction included four tunnels:
- Tunnel #1 at Hoadley was brick lined.
- Tunnel #2 at Hoadley was 693 feet long with a rock interior and timber portals, and partially concrete lined in 1916.
- Tunnel #3 at Tar Kiln Run east of Dean, which has collapsed.
- Tunnel #4 at Royersville, which was operated by the Iron Railroad, later part of the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railroad (DT&I). This tunnel is unlined.
In 1916, some tunnel improvements were completed south of Wellston at Tunnel #2. The CH&D was absorbed into the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (B&O) network and became the Toledo Division. The railroad south of Wellston, totaling 35 miles, was abandoned due to a lack of originating traffic and flooding that had washed out much of the line.1 4
The CH&D Buckeye Branch left Wellston traveling southeast, following Little Raccoon Creek for several miles where it split into two branches at Downard.2 The southern fork went through the vicinity of the Buckeye Furnace, while the northern branch traveled along Rich Run. The line was dismantled from the former Stone Wall Jackson Mine to #17 on the Buckeye Branch on February 23, 1942.1 The remainder of the Buckeye Branch from McNally Pittsburg to #17 was abandoned on February 2, 1969.
South of Berlin Crossroads, the CH&D ran a spur line from the Ironton Branch to the McKell Mine.2 Years later, the B&O would almost parallel the McKell spur with tracks into the Broken Aro strip mine tipple. Another spur at Gee Town, several mines south of Berlin Crossroads, served two mines.