Pig Iron Furnaces

The production of pig iron, munitions, and tools in the Between Rivers, Green River, Hanging Rock, Red River, and Rolling Fork Iron Regions in Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia, as well as other regions of the United States, was facilitated by the availability of charcoal timber, iron ore, and limestone as raw materials for the furnaces.







The production of pig iron, munitions, and tools in the Between Rivers, Green River, Hanging Rock, Red River, and Rolling Fork Iron Regions in Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia, as well as other regions of the United States, was facilitated by the availability of charcoal timber, iron ore, and limestone as raw materials for the furnaces.

Hanging Rock Iron Region

The Hanging Rock Iron Region in southern Ohio, northeastern Kentucky, and western West Virginia was an important producer of iron between 1818 and 1916, which was renowned for its corrosion-resistant properties. 20 By 1875, southeastern Ohio had become the leading producer of pig iron in the United States, with the iron being utilized in the production of weapons for the Civil War, the construction of the Monitor and Merrimac ships, as well as in the manufacture of household items such as pots, kettles, and tools, and in the production of wagon wheels.

To power the furnaces, forests were frequently cleared, and the wood was transformed into charcoal. 20 29 Each ton of iron required 190 bushels of charcoal, three tons of iron ore, and 300 pounds of limestone. These ingredients were poured into the top of the furnace and ignited with charcoal. Air was blown into the firepot through openings known as tuyeres on either side of the furnace. When heated to the correct temperature, the iron ore and limestone melted, and impurities in the mixture rose to the top, forming a glassy waste product called slag. The molten iron then flowed out of throare hearth and into pig iron molds, where it was cooled and solidified.

The earliest method of producing iron using the cold blast involved a small engine located at the base of the stack, which provided enough air to produce one ton of iron daily. 32 In 1837, the hot blast method was introduced and first implemented at Vesuvius Furnace by various furnace owners. This method utilized tuyere arches with cast iron tubes to direct hot air into the hearth. 33 The hot blast was powered by a steam engine, fueled by multiple boilers, which drove a blast cylinder to force air through the system. An iron regulator controlled the airflow from the reciprocating cylinder before the air was sent through a series of pipes to be heated to approximately 700° F by the boilers. The hot air entered the blast furnace through two large water-cooled nozzles known as tuyeres.

William Firmstone was chosen to implement the hot blast process at Vesuvius. Hurd, Gould & Company funded the endeavor, but in the event that the experiment was unsuccessful, the financial burden would be shared among all involved parties. The hot blast trial was highly successful and revolutionized the production of pig iron.

John Campbell experimented with the utilization of waste gas to drive further efficiency at Mt. Vernon Furnace in 1841. 32 Campbell installed boilers at the tunnel head of the furnace stack, applying the waste gas to the steam production. Other charcoal furnaces later adopted the process in the region.

In 1856, Diamond Furnace became the first facility in the Hanging Rock region to convert from charcoal as fuel to bituminous coal. 32 Others were slow to change, with Belfont Iron Works in Lawrence County only converting in 1867.

In the early years, oxen hauled the iron by wagon from the furnaces to docks along the Ohio River. 20 Once loaded, the iron was taken to Cincinnati, Pittsburgh, and St. Louis. Demand during the Civil War was so great that charcoal was often loaded onto wagons before it had cooled, and occasionally the hot coals would set the wagons on fire. The Iron Railway was constructed between 1849 and 1851 to serve furnaces along a 13-mile stretch north of Ironton, which later became a part of the Detroit, Toledo & Ironton Railroad.

Unfortunately, many of the furnaces were not operated at scale, were mismanaged, and/or had high transportation and labor costs. Additionally, iron ore from the Hanging Rock Iron Region had high sulfur content which resulted in yields in the 35-50% range. 3 By 1870, iron from the Mesawabi Iron Region was yielding 65% with much lower transportation costs because of large ore carriers that could traverse the Great Lakes which were then offloaded to awaiting railcars. railroads. By the 1900s, most of the furnaces were idled or blown out. It was predicted that iron ore in the Hanging Rock Iron Region would last for 2,700 years but the last of the primitive blast furnaces closed in 1916. 20


Furnaces

FurnaceRegionStateFirst BlastLast BlastCondition
Aetna FurnaceGreen RiverKentucky1816c. 1850sDemolished
Airdrie FurnaceGreen RiverKentucky1855Intact
Akron FurnaceOhio1840Demolished
Alice and Blanche FurnacesHanging RockKentucky1875Demolished
Amanda FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18291854Demolished
Amanda FurnaceHanging RockKentucky19632015Demolished
Arcole FurnaceOhio18281851Demolished
Argillite FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18181837Demolished
Ashland Furnace No. 1Hanging RockKentucky1869Demolished
Ashland Furnace No. 2Hanging RockKentucky18871962Demolished
Beaver Dam FurnaceRed RiverKentucky18191870-73Demolished
Belfont Iron WorksHanging RockOhio1867Demolished
Bellefonte FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18261893Demolished
Bellefonte FurnaceHanging RockKentucky19421994Demolished
Belmont FurnaceRolling ForkKentucky1844Intact
Big Sand FurnaceHanging RockOhio1854
Bloom FurnaceHanging RockOhio1854Demolished
Boone FurnaceHanging RockKentucky1857March 1871Intact
Briar Hill FurnaceHanging RockOhio1847Demolished
Brush Creek FurnaceHanging RockOhio1811
Buckeye FurnaceHanging RockOhio18511894Intact (Museum)
Buckhorn FurnaceHanging RockOhio1833/36c. 1899Intact
Buena Vista FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18471876Demolished
Buffalo FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18511875Intact (Park)
Burgess Steel & Iron WorksHanging RockOhio18991980Demolished
Cambria FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18541878
Camp Branch FurnaceHanging RockKentuckyc. 1819-29Demolished
Caney FurnaceRed RiverKentucky18381858Demolished
Caroline FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18331890Demolished
Center FurnaceHanging RockOhio1836Demolished
Center FurnaceBetween RiversKentucky18521912Demolished
Clear Creek/Bath FurnaceRed RiverKentucky18391875Intact (Park)
Clinton FurnaceHanging RockKentucky1832c. 1867Demolished
Clinton FurnaceHanging RockOhio1832Demolished
Cottage FurnaceRed RiverKentucky18541879Intact (Park)
Crittenden FurnaceBetween RiversKentucky1847Demolished
Curtis Creek FurnaceMaryland17591851Demolished
Dillon FurnaceHanging RockOhio1819-29Demolished
Dover FurnaceOhioc. 1859Demolished
Dresden FurnaceOhio18471850Demolished
Eagle FurnaceHanging RockOhio1852Partly Demolished
Eagle FurnaceOhio1854Demolished
Eddyville FurnaceBetween RiversKentucky1932c. 1850Demolished
Eliza FurnaceHanging RockOhio18771890Demolished
Empire FurnaceBetween RiversKentucky18431861Demolished
Empire FurnaceHanging RockOhio1847
Enterprise FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18261833Demolished
Estill FurnaceRed RiverKentucky18301874Intact
Etna FurnaceHanging RockOhio18321887Intact
Etna, Ironton, and Lawrence FurnacesHanging RockOhio1899, 1909-10Demolished
Falcon FurnaceOhio1856Demolished
Fitchburg FurnaceRed RiverKentucky18691873Intact (Park)
Five Mile FurnaceHanging RockOhio1855
Franklin FurnaceHanging RockOhio18271860Demolished
Fulton FurnaceBetween RiversKentucky1845Demolished
Fulton FurnaceHanging RockOhio1865Demolished
Gallia FurnaceHanging RockOhio1847Demolished
Gerard FurnaceBetween RiversKentucky18541858Demolished
Globe FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18321841Demolished
Globe FurnaceHanging RockOhio18721960Demolished
Grand Rivers FurnaceBetween RiversKentucky1890-911921Demolished
Grant FurnaceHanging RockOhio1869Demolished
Greenup/Honeywell FurnaceHanging RockKentucky1844Demolished
Hamden FurnaceHanging RockOhio1854Demolished
Hamilton FurnaceHanging RockOhioDemolished
Harrison FurnaceHanging RockOhio18531872Demolished
Hecla FurnaceHanging RockOhio18331915Demolished
Henry Clay FurnaceGreen RiverKentucky18321837Demolished
Hocking FurnaceHanging RockOhio1852Demolished
Hope FurnaceHanging RockOhio18541875Intact (Park)
Hopewell FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18331844Demolished
Hopewell FurnaceBetween RiversKentucky18481859Demolished
Hopewell FurnaceOhio18041837Intact
Howard FurnaceHanging RockOhio1853Intact
Hunnewell FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18451885/89Intact
Huron FurnaceHanging RockOhio1873c. 1883Demolished
Hurricane FurnaceHanging RockKentucky1853Demolished
Iron Hills FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18731880Demolished
Iron Valley/Lincoln/Cornelia FurnaceHanging RockOhio18531885
Ironton FurnaceHanging RockOhio1875Demolished
Jackson FurnaceHanging RockOhio18361874Demolished
Jefferson FurnaceHanging RockOhio18541916Intact
JISCO FurnaceHanging RockOhio19081969Demolished
Junior FurnaceHanging RockOhio18281876Demolished
Kenton FurnaceHanging RockKentucky1856Demolished
Keystone FurnaceHanging RockOhio18481885Intact
LaGrange FurnaceHanging RockOhio18361856Intact
Latrobe FurnaceHanging RockOhio18541885Demolished
Laura FurnaceBetween RiversKentucky18551872Demolished
Laurel FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18491874Intact
Lawrence FurnaceHanging RockOhio1834Demolished
Licking FurnaceKentucky18591888Demolished
Limestone FurnaceHanging RockOhio1854c. 1860sIntact (Park)
Lineport FurnaceKentucky18451854Demolished
Logan FurnaceHanging RockOhio1853Demolished
Lonaconing FurnaceMaryland18391855Intact (Park)
Madison FurnaceHanging RockOhio1854Intact
Mahoning FurnaceOhio1845Demolished
Mammoth FurnaceBetween RiversKentucky18451874Intact
Marble FurnaceHanging RockOhio18161836Demolished
Mary Ann FurnaceOhio18151850Demolished
Massilon FurnaceOhio1854Demolished
Meander FurnaceOhio1857Demolished
Mill Creek FurnaceOhio18351855Intact (Park)
Milton FurnaceHanging RockOhio18731923Demolished
Monitor FurnaceHanging RockOhio1868Demolished
Monroe FurnaceHanging RockOhio18541880s
Mt. Vernon FurnaceHanging RockOhio1833
Mt. Savage FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18481880Intact
Musquito FurnaceOhio1812Demolished
Nelson FurnaceRolling ForkKentucky1834Intact
New Hampshire FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18461854Intact (Park)
Newlee FurnaceTennessee18351881Intact
Nolin FurnaceGreen RiverKentucky18481850Intact
Norton FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18731964Demolished
Oak Ridge FurnaceHanging RockOhio18571859Intact
Oakland FurnaceHanging RockKentucky1834
Ohio FurnaceHanging RockOhio18251882Intact
Old Steam FurnaceHanging RockKentucky1825
Old Steam FurnaceHanging RockOhio18161826Demolished
Old Valley FurnaceWest Virginia18371840Intact
Olive FurnaceHanging RockOhio18461915Intact (Park)
Ophir FurnaceHanging RockOhio1874Demolished
Orange FurnaceHanging RockOhio18641873Demolished
Pactolus FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18241833-34Demolished
Paducah FurnaceKentucky18891903Demolished
Paint Creek FurnaceHanging RockOhio1812Demolished
Pennsylvania FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18451881Demolished
Peter Tarr FurnaceWest Virginia17941840Intact (Park)
Phoenix FurnaceOhio1854
Pine Grove FurnaceHanging RockOhio18281831Demolished
Pine Grove FurnaceHanging RockKentuckyIntact
Pioneer FurnaceHanging RockOhio18571870sIntact
Pioneer FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18821884Demolished
Princess FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18771878Demolished
Racoon FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18331884Intact
Richland FurnaceHanging RockOhio1854Intact
Roaring Run FurnaceVirginia18321861Intact
Salt Lick/Gideon/Diamond FurnaceHanging RockOhio18541867Demolished
Salt River FurnaceRolling ForkKentucky18321853/1870Intact
Sandy FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18531854Intact
Sarah FurnaceHanging RockOhio1877Demolished
Scioto FurnaceHanging RockOhio18281892Demolished
Slate FurnaceRed RiverKentucky17911838Intact (Park)
Stacker FurnaceBetween RiversKentucky18461856Demolished
Star FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18481874Demolished
Star FurnaceHanging RockOhio18661923Demolished
Steam FurnaceHanging RockKentucky18241860Demolished
Steam FurnaceHanging RockOhio1815Demolished
Suwanee FurnaceBetween RiversKentucky18511857Demolished
Talmadge FurnaceOhio1819/18351835Demolished
Trigg FurnaceBetween RiversKentucky18711878Demolished
Triumph FurnaceHanging RockOhioNever Built
Tropic FurnaceHanging RockOhio18731896Demolished
Tuscarawas FurnaceOhio18301846Demolished
Underwood FurnaceBetween RiversKentucky1846-471848Demolished
Union FurnaceHanging RockOhio18261852Demolished
Vesuvius FurnaceHanging RockOhio18361905Intact (Park)
Vinton FurnaceHanging RockOhio18541880Intact
Virginia FurnaceWest Virginia18541880Intact (Park)
Volcano Steam FurnaceOhio1855Demolished
Washington FurnaceHanging RockOhio1853
Watts FurnacesKentucky1890-931898Demolished
Wellston FurnacesHanging RockOhio18751923Demolished
Wharton FurnacePennsylvania18391873Intact (Park)
Young America FurnaceHanging RockOhio18561860Demolished
Zaleski FurnaceHanging RockOhio1868Demolished

Aetna Furnace

Aetna Furnace was constructed in 1816 by Charles Wilkins, Ruggles Whiting, and Jacob Holderman with 10,500 acres of landholdings in the Green River Iron Region near Magnolia in Hart County, Kentucky. 16 It was the first iron furnace established in the western half of the state The furnace operated under the partnership until 1826, when Holderman became the sole owner. Aetna Furnace’s last blast was in the 1850s.

Airdrie Furnace

Airdrie Furnace is located in the Green River Iron Region in Muhlenberg County, Kentucky, and was built in 1855 or 1857 by Robert Alexander, a Kentucky-born descendant of a titled Scottish family. 16 51 Alexander had acquired 17,000 acres of land along the Green River, where a large deposit of iron ore had been discovered. He brought over a number of miners and furnace tenders from Scotland to help develop the area, and who built houses and erected an iron shell stack that was 48 feet high with a bosh 15½ feet wide, along with an adjoining three-story building to house the machinery for the furnace blast and rolling mills. Fueled by bituminous coal from the Airdrie bed, its air blast was powered by steam.

Despite its construction, the furnace was unable to produce any saleable iron. 16 51 The Scottish workers were unfamiliar with domestic metallurgical practices as the ore required a different treatment than that found in Scotland. After spending more than $300,000, Alexander abandoned the project and retired to a farm in Woodford County. The planned industrial city of Airdrie, named after Alexander’s Scottish hometown, soon fell into ruins.

Directions: Airdrie Furnace is located in Paradise in Muhlenberg County, Kentucky.

Akron Furnace

Akron Furnace was constructed by Tod, Rhodes, and others in 1840 near Rawson’s Mill in Summit County, Ohio. 3 It featured a stack 36 feet in height with a bosh 10 feet wide. For 1850, it produced 1,000 tons of iron.

Alice and Blanche Furnaces

The Etna Iron Works Company built the Alice and Blanche Furnaces in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Ironton, Ohio. 3 5 32 Alice Furnace was named for the daughter of George Willard while Blanche Furnace was named for Blanche McGovney. Blanche was alternately known as the Big Etna Furnace. The furnaces were also known as the Ferrie Patent Self-Coking Furnaces. Together, they were built with 3 million red bricks and lined with 1.5 million firebricks and boasted stacks that reached 86 feet in height. Together, they had a daily production capacity of 75 tons using locally sourced iron or 100 tons when using ore from the Lake Superior region.

Financial complications and a worn out hearth led to the idling of the Alice Furnace on February 28, 1878. 5 The furnace had produced over 30,000 tons of pig iron with its original hearth, far exceeding its original design capability. Pig iron was reportedly leaking out of the hearth. A new furnace was installed at Alice on June 9, 1887.

Blanche Furnace was left unlined and incomplete until December 7, 1888, when the hearth was lined with firebrick and a blast was performed after it was stocked. 5

By January 1896, both Alice and Blanche Furnces were idled, with work beginning on January 23 to tear down the furnaces. 5 The ovens were removed for potential reuse. The site was later the property of the Marting Iron & Steel Company, which had been incorporated in January 1899 by H. A. Marting, T. J. Gibert, and E. J. Bird, Jr. 32

Amanda Furnace

Amanda Furnace was built in 1829 or 1831 by James E. McDowell, John Culver, John H., Edwin P., Robert C., and William L. Poage in the Hanging Rock Iron Region near Russell in Greenup County, Kentucky. 16 52 It featured a stone stack 35 feet high and a bosh ten feet wide. The Paull family later owned the furnace.

In 1838, it produced 100 tons of iron in 196 days, and in 1854, its final year of operation, it produced 200 tons. 16 52 The stone stack was demolished in July 1864 and used to expand the retaining wall behind Bellefonte. The title stone was later moved to Armco’s Amanda Furnace office.

Amanda Furnace, whose name was adopted for a new furnace by Armco Steel’s Ashland Works in 1963, featured a 30.6-foot hearth, 48 which was later enlarged to 33.6 feet in 1968. 4 46 A pulverized coal injection system was installed in 1973. The furnace was idled on December 15, 2015, and the Ashland Works facility was permanently closed in November 2019. The furnace was imploded on February 8, 2021.

Arcole Furnace

Arcole Furnace was constructed in 1825 by Root and Wheeler in Lake County, Ohio. 3 It featured a stack measuring 30 feet in height with a bosh nine feet wide, with a second identical stack added by Wilkeson & Company after it acquired the site in 1832. It had a weekly production capacity of 30 tons. The furnace ceased operations in 1851 after it was sold to the Geauga Furnace.

Argillite Furnace

Richard Deering, a farmer along the Little Sandy River in Greenup County, Kentucky, was engaged in salt boiling as a side interest. 32 He noticed iron deposits in his fields and on the hillsides, and in 1815, he erected a crude cupola and charged it with a small quantity of iron stone. The result proved satisfactory, and he engaged four or five molders to run his iron into hollowware.

In 1818, Deering partnered with David and John Trimble and constructed Argillite Furnace six miles south of Greenupsburg. 32 It was the first blast furnace established in the Hanging Rock Iron Region. It comprised of a furnace cut into a cliff of black slate with only two sides for arches, and a stack 25 feet high with a bosh six feet wide. A dam was built diagonally across the river, including an undershot waterwheel to furnish power for the blast. With a cold blast capacity of one ton daily, the iron produced was made into hollowware on weekdays and pigs on Sundays.

After the furnace was abandoned in 1837, the stones were repurposed to construct a grist mill.

Ashland Furnace

Ashland Furnace was built in 1869 by the Lexington & Big Sandy Railroad Company in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Ashland, Kentucky. 3

Belfont Iron Works

The Belfont Iron Works was established in 1867 in Ironton, Ohio, and was renowned as the largest plant of its kind in the Hanging Rock Iron Region. 32 At its center was the Belfont Furnace which featured a stack 70 feet tall and had a daily production capacity of 45 tons. The plant was also the first in the county to utilize bituminous coal as a fuel source.

L. T. Dean and Adam Owrey formed the Belfont Iron Works Company in June 1863 to produce cut nails. 32 In collaboration with the Norton Brothers, the company also constructed a furnace south of the nail mill. Over time, the plant grew to become one of the largest manufacturing facilities of its kind in the United States, spanning an area between Hecla and Vesuvius Streets and Second and Third. At its height, it featured 126 nail machines and employed 300 men, with a daily production capacity of 1,400 kegs of nails. 5

The stack was overhauled with a new hearth, in-wall, and lining in October 1885. 5 The hearth and top were reduced slightly but the bosh remained mostly the same. It made its first cast after the renovation on November 19 and soon had a daily production capacity of 50 tons daily.

In 1901, the cut nail department was partially replaced by a galvanized wire department. 32 By the 1910s, the plant’s iron works, and nail lines produced various products, including Bessemer pig iron, wire and cut nails, galvanized and plain wire, galvanized barbed wire, galvanized cut and wire nails, and polished and galvanized fencing.

By the time of its bankruptcy in March 1932, the Belfont Steel & Wire Company, had two furnaces, a nail mill, the former Kelly nail mill tract, 640 acres of land in Decatur Township, and 200 acres of land in Elizabeth Township. 5 Although the furnaces, Belfont and Sarah, had been modernized before the company went into receivership, the site had been mothballed and was in a state of disrepair. A public sale conducted on March 30 produced no buyers, even with a significantly reduced price below appraisal.

Bellefonte Furnace

Bellefonte Furnace was completed in 1825-26 by Archibald Paull, George Poague, and others in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Bellefonte, Boyd County, Kentucky. 16 32 It was later owned and managed by John Russell of Means, Russell & Means. The furnace featured a stone stack 34 feet in height with a bosh 10½ feet wide.

For 32 weeks in 1857, Bellefonte produced 1,721 tons of iron, and for 1874, it produced 3,600 tons of iron. 16 32 It continued to operate until 1893, during which time it accumulated a slag heap of 300,000 tons. The Bellefonte Furnace is noted as being the most successful of the pioneer furnaces in the region.

Bellefonte was the name chosen for a blast furnace built at Armco Steel’s Ashland Works in 1942, which was the 96th blast furnace to be built in the Hanging Rock Iron Region. 16 This furnace was notable for its large hearth, which measured 25 feet in diameter, and had the capacity to produce 1,000 tons of iron daily. In later years, the production capacity of this furnace was increased to 2,600 tons per day through the expansion of the hearth to 28¾ inches.

Belmont Furnace

Belmont Furnace was built in 1844 by J.B. Alexander & Company in the Rolling Fork Iron Region near Lebanon Junction in Bullitt County, Kentucky. 4 16 It featured a stack 33 feet in height with a bosh 10 feet wide. Fueled by charcoal, its hot air blast was powered by a steam engine. The furnace was rebuilt in 1853, and over a period of six months in 1857, it produced 1,140 tons of iron which were primarily shipped to Louisville for use in the production of nails.

Directions: Belmont Furnace is on private property near Lebanon Junction in Bullitt County, Kentucky.

Big Sand Furnace

Big Sand Furnace was built in 1854 in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Vinton County, Ohio. 3 Owned by the Big Sand Iron Company and Bartlett, Danner & Company, and managed by S.J. Summinger, it featured a stack 36 feet high and a bosh 10½ wide. For 33 weeks in 1856, it produced 1,800 tons of soft grey iron.

Bloom Furnace

Bloom Furnace was erected in 1830 or 1854 by Christian Benner and his sons John and Joshua in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Scioto County, Ohio. 3 6 Operated by G.S. Williams & Company of Portsmouth, It featured a stack 35 feet high with a bosh 9½ feet wide. For the year 1856, it produced 1,800 tons of soft grey iron. In 1874, the furnace went out of blast until acquired by Eugene H. Clare of the J.D. Clare & Company in 1879.

Boone Furnace

Boone Furnace, located within the Hanging Rock Iron Region on Grassy Creek in Carter County, Kentucky, was constructed by Col. Sebastian Eifort, Thomas Price, and John Eifort of Eifort, Watkins & Company in 1856-57. 29 The first blast was held on July 4. However, a fire on July 25 destroyed the coal house, bridge house, and cast house resulting in a loss of $4,000. Following this incident, Hy Pogue, Thad Bennett, L. Dodge, Eli Glover, and H.B. Smith joined the company, investing through their land holdings.

Between 1866 and 1871, Boone Furnace had a production rate of between 1,200 to 2,000 tons per year. 29 A combination of mismanagement and resource depletion forced the closure of the furnace on March 31, 1871. Attempts at refinancing the furnace continued until 1884, but it was ultimately never put back into production.

Directions: Boone Furnace is located along Grassy Creek-Smith Road in Carter County, Kentucky.

Briar Hill Furnace

Briar Hill Furnace was built in 1847 by David Tod near Eagle Furnace in Youngstown, Ohio. 3 Managed by W. Richards, it featured a stack 41 feet high with a bosh 14 feet wide. For 1857, it produced 3,161 tons of mill iron.

Brush Creek Furnace

Brush Creek Furnace was constructed by Ellison, James, and Colonel Paull in 1811 in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Adams County, Ohio. 3 32 It was the first blast furnace to be erected in the state. In 1826, the Brush Creek Furnace Company transformed into James T. Claypoole & Company but the furnace was abandoned after the Ironton and Hanging Rock ores were discovered in that year.

Brush Creek Furnace was also the first furnace in the United States to operate on steam. 3 32 The steam engine was manufactured by the Pitts Steam Engine Company and installed by James Rodgers. While working on the installation, Rodgers had the opportunity to observe the local industry. After consulting with Means, John Sparks, and Valentine Fear, he founded Union Furnace at Hanging Rock on July 4, 1826, under the company name James Rodgers & Company. Rodgers later established the Etna Furnace in 1832 and operated it until his death in June 1860.

Buena Vista Furnace

The Buena Vista Furnace was built in 1847-48 by William Foster & Company in the Hanging Rock Iron Region of Boyd County, Kentucky. 16 Named after the Battle of Buena Vista, which occurred during the Mexican-American War in the same year, it featured a stack 40 feet high and a bosh 10 feet wide. The furnace was later owned by H. Means & Company and managed by John Rhoads.

In 32 weeks of 1854, Buena Vista produced 1,649 tons of iron, and in 1874, it produced 4,113 tons of iron. The furnace was dismantled in 1876.

Burgess Steel & Iron Works

Burgess Steel & Iron Works was built by Charles Burgess, M.H. and T.B. Ball, B.F. Perregrin, Fred Thompson, and John R. and W.E. Williams in 1898-99 in the Hanging Rock Iron Region at 3rd and Madison Streets in Clay Township, Scioto County, Ohio. 3 The original furnace had been built in 1872 and had a yearly production capacity of 3,500 tons, but it was destroyed by a fire in 1898. Burgess built four new furnaces in their place, each with a daily production capacity of 30 tons, or a yearly production capacity of 50,000 tons.

In 1900, Burgess Steel & Iron Works was sold to the Crucible Steel Company, which closed the four furnaces. 3 The Portsmouth Steel Company acquired the site in 1902, and the furnaces were upgraded with a daily production capacity of 300 tons. In 1950, the Detroit Steel Corporation bought Portsmouth Steel which was sold to Cyclops in 1969. Facing a glut of business in the industry, Cyclops began a gradual shutdown of the mill in 1972, accumulating with the shutdown of its blast furnace and open-hearth furnaces in 1980. However, the coke plant remained operational until 2002.

Cambria Furnace

Cambria Furnace, located in the Hanging Rock Iron Region near the town of Samsonville, also known as Blackfork Station, in southern Jackson County, Ohio, was constructed in 1854 by David Lewis & Company. 1 3 6 20 31 It was officially established on March 1, 1854, with an initial capital of $60,000 with 60 Welsh stockholders. Some farmers donated land in exchange for shares, receiving $15 per acre. 2 3 4 The furnace featured a stack 30½ feet in height with a bosh 10½ feet wide. Fueled by charcoal, its hot air blast was powered by a steam engine which allowed for a daily capacity of seven tons. It was later converted to coal.

Operations at the Cambria Furnace were impacted by the economic Panic of 1857, and it closed in 1878. 1 3 6 20 31

Camp Branch Furnace

Camp Branch Furnace, also known as Farewell Furnace, was located 14 miles south of Greenupsburg along the Little Sandy River in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Greenup County, Kentucky. Built by David and John Trimble, it was abandoned between 1819-29.

Caney Furnace

Caney Furnace was built in 1837-1838 by Harrison Connor and Joshua Ewing, Sr. in the Red River Iron Region of Midland, Bath County, Kentucky. 16 It was one of the first iron furnaces located west of the Allegheny Mountains to utilize a hot blast oven for preheating the air blown through the stack. The furnace operated until 1849, although it briefly resumed operations in 1857-1858 by R. and A.S. Carter.

Caroline Furnace

Caroline Furnace was built by Henry, Blake & Company in 1833 in the Hanging Rock Iron Region near Raceland in Greenup County, Kentucky. 16 It featured a stone stack 35 feet high and a bosh 10 feet wide. For 1838, the Caroline Furnace had a production output of 750 tons of pig iron, using 2,062 tons of iron ore and 225,000 bushels of charcoal as inputs, and in 1857, the furnace’s output increased to 1,200 tons of iron. It remained in operation until 1890.

Center Furnace

Center Furnace, also known as Hematite Furnace, was built by Daniel Hillman in 1852 in Trigg County, Kentucky. 16 Owned by Empire Iron Works, who also owned the Empire and Fulton Furnaces, it featured a stack 35 feet high and a bosh 10 feet wide. Fueled by charcoal, its air blast was powered by a steam engine. In 46 weeks of 1856, it produced 2,139 tons of pig iron that were mostly shipped by steamboat to fabricators elsewhere and operated intermittently until 1912.

Clinton Furnace

Clinton Furnace was built by George, William Thomas H., and Hugh A. Poage in 1832 in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Rockdale, Boyd County, Kentucky. 16 It featured a stack 35 feet high and a bosh 10 feet wide. For 270 days in 1838, the furnace consumed 2,992 tons of ore and 247,000 bushels of charcoal to produce 950 tons of iron. In 1857, it produced 1,500 tons of iron. Operations ceased before 1867.

Clinton Furnace

Clinton Furnace was built in 1832 by General William Kendall for McCullum, John P. Perry, and others in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Scioto County, Ohio. 3 6 Owned by Gliddon, Crawford & Company and managed by S.S. Gliddon, it featured a stack 32 feet high with a bosh 10 feet wide. For 1854, it produced 2,920 tons of iron.

In 1867, George Crawford bought out his partners in the furnace and took in William J. Bell. 6 In 1870, Crawford sold out to Bell and moved to Portsmouth. Bell operated the furnace until 1873, when it was blown out. Crawford then engaged in a ten-year battle over the title of the furnace.

During its 41 years of operation, it produced approximately 50,000 tons of iron. 6

Crittenden Furnace

Crittenden Furnace, named after the newly established county, was built by Gideon D. Cobb in 1847 in the Between Rivers Iron Region near Dycusburg in Crittenden County, Kentucky. 16 It featured a stack 30 feet tall with a bosh nine feet wide. Fueled by charcoal, its air blast was powered by steam. In 1855, the furnace produced 1,300 tons of iron.

The Cobb and Lyon families, who coarrived in the area around 1800 upon the recommendation of Andrew Jackson regarding iron ore deposits, operated several ironworks before the establishment of the Crittenden Furnace. 16 It was the last ironwork to be built by the families.

Curtis Creek Furnace

Curtis Creek Furnace was constructed in 1759 near Glen Burnie, Maryland. A foundry was built in 1829. Fueled by charcoal, its air blast was powered by a steam engine. The furnace operated until 1851.

Dillon Furnace

Dillon Furnace was built between 1819 and 1829 by Buckingham of Zanesville at the Falls of Licking in Muskingum County, Ohio. 3 It featured a stack 30 feet high with a bosh six feet wide which was later expanded with a stack 45 feet high with a bosh 12 feet wide. It had a yearly production capacity of 1,000 tons of iron a year. The furnace was abandoned in 1850.

Dover Furnace

Dover Furnace was constructed by the Tuscarawas Iron Company in Dover, Ohio. 3 It featured a stack 45 feet high with a bosh 12 feet wide. For 1856, it produced 900 tons of iron. The furnace was abandoned by 1859.

Dresden Furnace

Dresden Furnace was constructed in 1847 near Hopewell Falls of the Licking River in Ohio. 3 Owned by Spaulding & Company, it featured a stack 45 feet high with a bosh 10 feet wide. The furnace was abandoned in 1850.

Eagle Furnace

Eagle Furnace is located in the Hanging Rock Iron Region of Vinton County, Ohio, and was constructed in 1852 by A. Bentley, Benner, Bundy, and others. It featured a bosh 11 feet wide. Fueled by charcoal, its hot blast was powered by a steam engine which allowed for a daily capacity of eight tons. For 28 weeks in 1856, it produced 1,725 tons of iron.

Directions: Eagle Furnace is located 6½ miles east of Hamden, Ohio along OH Route 160.

Eagle Furnace

Eagle Furnace, also known as Philpot Furnace, was built in 1854 by Crowford and Murrary near Youngstown, Ohio. 3 It featured a stack 49 feet high with a bosh 12 feet wide. Fueled by stone coal, its hot air blast was powered by a steam engine. For 1857, it produced 3,284 tons of rolling mill iron.

Eddyville Furnace

The Eddyville Furnace, known also as the Jim & I.A., was constructed in 1832 by John and Samuel Stacker, and Thomas Tennessee Watson in the Between Rivers Iron Region near Eddyville, Kentucky. 16 Ownership of the furnace later passed to the Cobb family and then to William Kelly. It featured a brick stack and used charcoal as fuel and a significant portion of the iron produced at the Eddyville Furnace was forged in Kuttawa. The furnace’s last recorded blast occurred around 1850.

The development of the pneumatic process for steelmaking by William Kelly at Eddyville Furnace revolutionized the industry. 50 This process, which involved blowing air through molten pig iron to oxidize and remove impurities, was the result of research into more efficient methods of refining pig iron due to the depletion of timberland and carbon-free iron deposits. Kelly’s process, which was also patented by Sir Henry Bessemer in Great Britain, was developed in experimental furnaces between 1851-1856, with the secrecy surrounding the work as Kelly was concerned that customers would not trust the metal produced through this new process.

At the time, iron was available in three forms, each distinguished by the amount of carbon present in the iron. 50 Cast iron contained the highest levels of carbon, with some of it being converted into wrought iron, which contained no carbon, through forging processes. Steel, the strongest form of iron, was made by slowly heating iron to high temperatures, but this was an expensive and time-consuming process that was not widely used. Kelly’s process allowed for air drafts that caused the molten iron to glow white hot, thereby removing carbon and raising the temperature of the molten mass, making further heating unnecessary.

Following his objection to Bessemer’s patent application for the process in the United States, Kelly was granted his own patent in 1857. 50 He subsequently continued his experiments at the Cambria Iron Works in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, and was eventually able to secure financial support to establish a steel mill in Wyandotte, Michigan, by 1862. In 1863, Kelly formed the Kelly Pneumatic Process Company, and in 1864, he successfully produced the first commercial steel using his process. However, both Kelly’s company and a rival company using Bessemer’s patents in Troy, New York, experienced limited commercial success, leading to the merger of the two companies.

Eliza Furnace

Eliza Furnace was built in 1877 by Harvey Wells in the Hanging Rock Iron Region on East 10th Street in Wellston, Ohio. 3 Named after Well’s wife, Eliza, it went into blast that October. In July 1878, the furnace was leased to John C.H. Cobb, but it was forced to close in October. It was then purchased by H.S. Bundy in 1881 and was operated until 1890 and dismantled in 1891.

Empire Furnace

Empire Furnace was constructed in 1843 by Thomas Tennessee Watson in the Between Rivers Iron Region in Trigg County, Kentucky.16 It featured a brick stack 35 feet high with a bosh 9½ feet wide. Fueled by charcoal, its air blast was powered by a steam engine.

Operations were sold to Daniel Hillman in 1849. In 45 weeks of 1856, it produced 1,836 tons of pig iron. The tunnel heads at the Center, Empire, and Fulton Furnaces were enlarged to four feet in April 1859 in preparation for the introduction of a conical bottom filler. Empire Furnace closed in 1861 because of repeated floods and Civil War military actions.

Empire Furnace

Empire Furnace was built in 1847 by Gliddon, Murfin & Company in the Hanging Rock Iron Region along Poplar Fork of Pine Creek in Scioto County, Ohio. 3 Managed by O.H. Gliddon, it featured a stack 31 feet high with a bosh 10 feet wide. For 31 weeks of 1856, it produced 2,078 tons of iron.

Enterprise Furnace

Enterprise Furnace was built in 1826 or 1832 by Richard Deering, James McCoy, and Jacob Clinghan in the Hanging Rock Iron Region near South Shore, Kentucky. 16 It was on the site of an earlier bloomery forge that had been established in 1824. Fueled by charcoal, its air blast was powered by water which allowed for a daily capacity of six tons. Most of the pig iron was forged into utensils. Enterprise Furnace ceased operations in 1833.

Etna, Ironton, and Lawrence Furnaces

The Marting Iron & Steel Company, led by Col. H. A. Marting as President and General Manager, owned and operated the Etna, Lawrence, and Ironton Iron furnaces located in Ironton, Ohio. 32 Etna Furnace became a part of the company when it was incorporated in January 1899. The Ironton Iron Company was established in May 1907, with its namesake furnace completed in the spring of 1908, although it did not begin operations until November. The Lawrence Iron Company was incorporated in February 1910, with its namesake furnace opening within the year.

Prior to July 1912, the three furnaces were operated independently by their respective corporations until July 1912, when the Ironton Iron and Lawrence Iron companies consolidated with the Marting Iron & Steel Company. 32 From this point forward, the Etna Furnace was utilized for the production of foundry iron, the Ironton Furnace for the production of malleable Bessemer, and the Lawrence Furnace for the production of basic. The combined capacity of the three furnaces allowed for the production of approximately 800 to 850 tons daily.

Falcon Furnace

Falcon Furnace was constructed in 1856 by Howard in Youngstown, Ohio. 3 It featured a stack 47 feet high with a bosh 14 feet wide.

Five Mile Furnace

Five Mile Furnace was built in 1855 by the Five Mile Furnace Company, headed by R. Adcock, in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Hocking County, Ohio. 3 Leased to Webster & Company and managed by William M. Bowen, it featured a stack 33 feet high with a bosh 10 feet wide. For 21 weeks in 1856, it produced 1,035 tons of foundry iron.

Franklin Furnace

Franklin Furnace was constructed in 1826-27 by a group of individuals from New Hampshire, including Daniel and John Young, Jesse Y. Whitcomb, Josiah Merrill, John Hurd, and Martin Ruter in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Green Township, Scioto County, Ohio. 2 3 Daniel Young had previously founded the Ohio Iron Company, which was later sold to John Young and Van Horn in 1831.

The furnace featured a stack 28 feet high with a bosh 9½ wide, and was capable of producing ten tons of iron daily. 2 3 In 1836, the furnace converted to hot blast technology, but it partially burned down shortly afterward and had to be rebuilt. It was subsequently sold to A.J. Rogers & Company and then to Jefferson W. Glidden and John Blair in 1841, with Glidden eventually becoming the sole owner. John Gould and Jesse and Jacob Hurd later acquired Glidden’s interest, and Gould eventually bought the furnace outright, profiting significantly during the Mexican War. 2 3 6 In 1850, Gould sold his stake in the operation to his brother, Orin B. Gould Sr.

For 26 weeks in 1856, the furnace produced 2,277 tons of iron.

At its peak, Franklin Furnace shipped pig iron to Portsmouth via steamboats on the Ohio River, as well as to other markets through the Ohio & Erie Canal. 2 3 6 The furnace was in operation until 1860, producing approximately 60,000 tons of pig iron worth $1.5 million. In 1888, Charles Goddard removed numerous sandstone blocks from the furnace to repair locks at Three Locks on the Ohio & Erie Canal. Only a few stones were left and used as the foundation for a schoolhouse later built on the furnace site.

Fulton Furnace

Fulton Furnace was constructed in 1845 by Watson & Hillman in the Between Rivers Iron Region near Eddyville in Lyon County, Kentucky. 2 Owned by Empire Iron Works, who also owned the Center and Empire Furnaces, it featured a stack 33 feet high with a bosh 11 feet wide. The furnace was converted to a hot blast in 1856. For 22 weeks in 1857, it produced 1,400 tons of pig iron for the Tennessee Rolling Mill and the Lower Mississippi and St. Louis markets.

Fulton Furnace

Fulton Furnace was built in 1865 in the Hanging Rock Iron Region at Main and South Streets in Jackson, Ohio. 3 31 Lewis Davis acquired the land after he departed from Orange Furnace. At the time of its organization, Fulton was headed by Samuel McCormick (President), J.E. Ferree (Secretary), who were joined by J.H. Bunn, G.W. and Ezekial Cavett, Lewis Dungan, and John D. Jones.

Fulton Furnace was fueled by stone coal from the former Globe slope on West Main Street, as the coal from the Fulton site was of inferior quality. 3 31 By December 1868, it had a daily production capacity of 16 tons.

In 1873, the Fulton and Globe Furnaces were consolidated under the Globe Iron Company. 3 After the original Globe Furnace burned in 1876, the Fulton Furnace was remodeled and served as the second iteration of Globe.

Gallia Furnace

Gallia Furnace was constructed in 1847 by John Campbell and John Peters in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Gallia County, Ohio. 3 32 It featured a tack 30 feet high with a bosh 10 feet wide. For 1857, it produced 2,300 tons of iron.

Gerard Furnace

Gerard Furnace was built in 1854 by Browder, Kentucky & Company in the Between Rivers Iron Region in New Concord, Calloway County, Kentucky. 16 It featured a stack measuring 24 feet high with a bosh 10½ feet wide. 2 Fueled by charcoal, its air blast was powered by a steam engine. For 34 weeks in 1857, it produced 1,595 tons of pig iron, which was primarily transported via steamboat on the Tennessee River. Gerard Furnace ceased operations in 1858.

Globe Furnace

Globe Furnace was constructed by the Tygarts Creek Manufacturing Company in the Hanging Rock Iron Region along Tygarts Creek in northern Greenup County, Kentucky. 49 It operated between 1832 and 1841. In 1855, Benjamin Franklin Bennett and William Parmoley Bennett built a grist mill at the same location, leading the community to be renamed Bennetts Mill. A covered bridge built adjacent to the mill utilized dressed sandstone from the abandoned Globe Furnace as abutments.

Globe Furnace

Globe Furnace was erected in 1872 by Watts, Hoop & Company in the Hanging Rock Iron Furnace on West Main Street in Jackson, Ohio. 3 31 The company was owned by J.M. Watts, Peter Hoop, Jr., C.S. Dickason, and T.P. Sutherland, and the construction project was headed by Henry Hossman. Fueled by stone coal mined at the site, its hot air blast was powered by steam-powered boilers.

In December 1873, Thomas T. Jones formed the Globe Iron Company to purchase both the Fulton and Globe Furnaces. 3 31 Jones had emigrated from Wales in 1837 and was the first president of the Jefferson Furance in 1854.

Globe Furnace burned down in 1876, after which time the Fulton Furnace was remodeled and became the site of the Globe Iron Company. 3 31 The company was purchased by the Interlake Iron Company of Cleveland in July 1956. On September 3, 1960, an explosion rocked the furnace. The molten metal broke out of the hearth and pushed into the wet fill under the furnace floor. The resulting steam pressure caused an explosion. The furnace never operated afterward.

Grand Rivers Furnace

Grand Rivers Furnace was built in 1890-91 by Grand Rivers Coal, Iron & Railroad Company in the Between Rivers Iron Region in Grand River, Livingston County, Kentucky. 16 It was equipped with two stacks, each standing 60 feet high with a bosh 13½ feet wide. 2 Initially fueled by coal, its air blast was powered by a steam engine which allowed for a yearly production of 45,000 tons. It switched to utilizing coke after 1901. The furnaces were operated intermittently until they were dismantled in 1921.

Grant Furnace

Grant Furnace was built in 1869 by W.D. Kelly & Sons in the Hanging Rock Iron Region on Front Street between Monroe and Quincy Streets in Ironton, Ohio. 5 Ground was broken in late March, with construction underway by April 5. The stack was finished on June 10, with the brickwork laid by August 1. Fueled by charcoal, its cold air blast was powered by a steam engine.

During the construction of the Ironton-Russell Bridge in 1922, bricks, melted iron remnants, and slag from the Grant Furnace site were uncovered. 5

Greenup/Honeywell Furnace

Greenup Furnace, also known as Honeywell Furnace, was constructed in 1844 or 1845-46 by John Campbell, John Peters, and Culbertson in the Hanging Rock Iron Region on the Little Fork of the Little Sandy River in Greenup County, Kentucky. 2 32 Owned by Wilson, Baird & Company and managed by A.J. Bell, it featured a stack 37 feet high with a bosh 11 feet wide. For 1856, it produced 2,600 tons of iron.

Hamden Furnace

Hamden Furnace was constructed in 1851 by L.C. Damarin and others in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Vinton County, Ohio. 3 Owned by Damarin, Tarr & Company and managed by McKean, it featured a stack 33 feet high with a bosh 11 feet wide. Its cold and hot air blasts were powered by a steam engine. For the year 1856, it produced 2,157 tons of iron.

Hamilton Furnace

Hamilton Furnace, built by the Hanging Rock Iron Company, which succeeded Means, Kyle & Company in 1884-85, was the last furnace to be established in the Hanging Rock Iron Region of Lawrence County, Ohio. 5 32 It had a daily production capacity of 60 tons of iron. 5 In 1897, parts of the former Pine Grove Furnace were melted and used in the ironmaking process at Hamilton.

Harrison Furnace

Harrison Furnace was erected in 1853 by the Eifort, Spellman & Company in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Scioto County, Ohio. 3 Owned by Henry Spellman, S.R. Ross, and others, and managed by Spellman, it featured a stack 38 feet high with a bosh 10¼ feet wide. For 30 weeks in 1857, it produced 2,300 tons of iron.

The furnace was purchased in 1860 by Daniel Sommers and Samuel McConnel and operated until 1872. 3

Hecla Furnace

Hecla Furnace was built by R.B. Hamilton & McCoy in 1833 in the Hanging Rock Iron Region near Kitts Hill, Lawrence County, Ohio. 3 34 It featured a stack 36 feet high with a bosh 10½ feet wide. 3 5 32 Fueled by charcoal, its cold blast was powered by a steam engine, and it had a daily production capacity of ten tons. 5 For 30 weeks in 1857, the furnace produced 1,760 tons of iron. 3

In October 1852, Hecla was sold at an estate sale to John Campbell, C. Briggs, and E.H. Griswold, which took possession on January 1, 1853. 5

The furnace was reconstructed in the 1890s, at which point it was fitted with an iron jacket that measured 53 feet high with a bosh 21 feet wide, along with a smokestack 124 feet tall. It allowed for a daily capacity of 100 tons. 3 34

During the American Civil War, Hecla Furnace provided armor for the gunboats that were used in the attacks on Forts Henry and Donelson, as well as for the production of ordnance at Pittsburgh. 32 Many of the guns used in the siege of Charleston, South Carolina, were made from metal from the Hecla Furnace, including the “Swamp Angel,” which was capable of launching 100-pound shells a distance of 5½ miles.

Hecla Furnace was idled in 1900 but resumed operations in July 1902. 5 It ceased operations in 1905. 32

Henry Clay Furnace

Henry Clay Furnace was built in 1832 by Aylette Hartswell Buckner, S.V. Leedom, and Cadwallader Churchill in the Green River Iron Region near Munfordville, Hart County, Kentucky. 16 It featured a stack built of stone with a height of 35 feet and a bosh nine feet wide. Fueled by charcoal, its air blast was powered by a water wheel. The furnace ceased operations in 1837.

Hocking Furnace

Hocking Furnace was constructed in 1852 by the Hocking Iron Company in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Hocking County, Ohio. 3 Managed by W.H. Haydn, it featured a stack 32 feet high with a bosh nine feet high. For 21 weeks in 1857, it produced 1,000 tons of iron.

Hope Furnace

Hope Furnace is located in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Vinton County, Ohio, and was built in 1854 by Col. Putman and others. 3 Fueled by charcoal, its hot air blast was powered by a steam engine, which allowed for a daily capacity of 15 tons. For 1870, the furnace produced 2,827 tons of iron which required 1,150 to 1,225 pounds of iron ore, 70 pounds of limestone, and 35 bushels of charcoal.

Hope Furnace’s last blast was in 1875.

Directions: Hope Furnace is located in Lake Hope State Park in Ohio.

Hopewell Furnace

Hopewell Furnace, also known as Camp Branch Furnace, was built in 1824 by Ward as a bloomery forge in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Hopewell, Greenup County, Kentucky. 16 32 In 1832-33, it underwent conversion into a blast furnace fueled by charcoal with an air blast that was powered by a water wheel. In 1838, the furnace produced 600 tons of ore while consuming 165,000 bushels of charcoal as fuel. Its operations ceased in 1844.

Hopewell Furnace

Hopewell Furnace, also known as Ozeoro Furnace, was erected in 1848 by William L. Hiter, William Lewis, and Henry F. Given in the Between Rivers Iron Region in Tiline, Livingston County, Kentucky. 2 16 It featured a brick stack with a height of 30 feet and a bosh nine feet wide. Fueled by charcoal, it was operated by a steam engine. For 33 weeks in 1856, it produced 1,096 tons of pig iron. In 1857, the furnace underwent reconstruction and ceased operations in 1859.

Hopewell Furnace

Hopewell Furnace, also known as Poland Furance, is located in Poland, Ohio, and was constructed circa 1804 by Daniel and James Eaton. 3 It featured a stack 30 feet high with a bosh seven feet wide. Fueled by charcoal, its cold air blast was powered by a water mill which allowed for a daily capacity of one to three tons.

The original furnace was not a commercial success and closed circa 1808. 3 It was rebuilt in 1809, 1816, and 1837 after which the site was abandoned after making two blasts.

Directions: Hopewell Furnace can be viewed in Lake Hamilton in Poland, Ohio.

Howard Furnace

Howard Furnace is located in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Scioto County, Ohio, and was constructed in 1853 by John Campbell. 3 32 Managed by H.A. Webb, it featured a stack 38 feet high with a bosh 11 feet wide. Fueled by charcoal, its hot air blast was powered by a steam engine which allowed for a daily capacity of nine tons.

Directions: Howard Furnace can be viewed along Howard Furnace Road in Scioto County, Ohio.

Hurricane Furnace

Hurricane Furance, also known as Jackson Furnace, was built in 1853 by Andrew Jackson on the Little Fork of the Little Sandy River in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Carter County, Kentucky. 2 It featured a stack 34 feet high and a bosh 10 feet wide. The furnace was rebuilt in 1856, and for 26 weeks in 1857, it produced 1,200 tons of pig iron for rolling mills. As of 1859, the furnace was owned by John W. Walker of Nashville and J.R. Hassell of Marion, Ohio.

Huron Furnace

Huron Furnace was constructed in 1873 by the Huron Iron Company in the Hanging Rock Iron Region southwest of Jackson, Ohio. 3 31 Utilizing equipment from the failed Triumph Furnace, it was financed by Lot Davis (President), Moses Jones (Secretary and Manager), J.D. Clare, Thomas H. Jones, A.F. McCarley, Moses Sternberger, and William Vaugh. The coal shaft was started on January 29, 1874, and by February 19, 61 feet of the shaft had been completed.

The furnace went into blast in April 1875 but closed in 1876 because of a lack of profitability. 3 31 It was operational again between November 1879 and 1883. The First National Bank of Jackson and the First National Bank of Portsmouth then purchased Huron Furnace. They leased it to the Globe Iron Company for a short time before abandoning operations.

Iron Hills Furnace

Iron Hills furnace was built om 1873 in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Carter County, Kentucky, and was the last furnace erected in the county. 2 29 It featured an outer shell made of iron and a system of hot-blast ovens separate from the main furnace. The iron shell stack was supported by iron pillars and included a fire brick hearth, closed top with bell and hopper charging apparatus, and a gas flue for waste gas to be transported to the boilers. An inclined plane elevator was utilized to lift charges from the stock bank to the furnace throat.

Iron Hills could produce 18 to 20 tons of pig iron per day by late 1873, but faced both financial and technical difficulties that ultimately led to the closure of the plant in the spring of 1874 after only 962 tons of pig iron had been produced. 2 29 The furnace struggled to reach a sufficient temperature for a successful blast.

The company’s assets were sold on November 3, and it was reorganized as Charlotte Furnce, resuming operations in late 1875. 2 29 However, the furnace went into receivership in 1878. A third financial crisis resulted in the sale of the furnace to Edward Avery and H.W. Brum for $25,000 on November 8, and it was never operated again before being scrapped.

Iron Valley/Lincoln/Cornelia Furnace

Iron Valley Furnace was constructed in 1853/1854/1855 along a natural crack on a stone cliff in the Hanging Rock Iron Region near Jackson, Ohio. 2 3 6 31 Built by Thompson, Laslie & Company, it featured a stack 38 feet high with a bosh 11 feet wide which allowed for a daily capacity of 12 tons.

In 1858, ownership of the furnace was transferred to the Iron Valley Furnace Company, and in 1861 it was leased to William McGhee and William Ratcliff. 3 6 McGhee eventually acquired Ratcliff’s share in 1863 and renamed the furnace after Abraham Lincoln. It was later rechristened as the Cornelia Furnace, named in honor of McGhee’s daughter. The Cornelia Furnace ceased operations in 1885.

Ironton Furnace

Ironton Furnace was constructed in 1871 or 1875 at the cost of $100,000 by the Iron & Steel Company in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Lawrence County, Ohio. 3 5 32 Fueled by a combination of coal and coke, it had a daily production capacity of 40 tons. 5 32 It originally had four tuyeres but was expanded to seven tuyeres in September 1885.

A slumping iron business led to the bankruptcy of the Iron & Steel Company. 5 The worn-out and dilapidated Ironton Furnace was sold at a sheriff’s sale to Col. H.A. Marting for $2,000 on September 18, 1897. 5 The plant was later transferred to the Union Iron & Steel Company.

Jackson Furnace

Jackson Furnace was built in 1836 by J. Hurd, Young, and others in Hanging Rock Iron Region in Jackson County, Ohio. 1 2 3 It featured a stack 40 feet high and a bosh 9½ feet wide. 7 Fueled by charcoal, its air blast was powered by a steam engine, the first to be used on a furnace in the county. 1 3 Due to the economic Panic of 1837, the owners were compelled to sell the complex to Ellison, Tewksberry & Company. For 1857, it produced 2,700 tons of iron. The furnace remained in operation until 1874.

JISCO Furnace

The Jackson Iron & Steel Company (JISCO) was incorporated in August 1906 by David D. Davis, Henry Hossman, Moses and John F. Morgan, and John J. Thomas in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Jackson, Ohio. 3 Morgan was the former secretary of the Tropic Furnace and associated with the Aetna Fire Brick Company, while Hossman was a structural engineer from Portsmouth and had built both the Globe and Star Furnaces. A furnace with one metal stack and three hot blast ovens was completed in 1908 and was originally fed a combination of Sharon No. 1 coal that was mined on site, although in later years a mixture of local coal, coke from West Virginia, and ores from the Lake Superior region were used.

During World War I, JISCO added a fourth hot blast stove, two boilers, and a second steam engine. 3 The original furnace was dismantled in 1942 and replaced with a larger furnace and hot blast stove which was completed in 70 days by the William Pollock Company of Youngstown, Ohio. JISCO was purchased in 1947 by Fred Jones of Columbus, Ohio, and between 1952-53, capacity was increased by 15%. To ensure an adequate supply of water, a 70 acre lake was built.

JISCO closed on May 20, 1969. 3 The site was purchased by Banner Induistries of Cleveland. After a failed attempt to implement an electric arc furnace, the site was dismantled in 1983.

Junior Furnace

Junior Furnace was built in 1828 by Young Brothers and others in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Scioto County, Ohio. 3 Owned by Gliddon, Murfin & Company, the same owners of Franklin Furnace, and managed by James Murfin, it featured a stack 33 feet high and a bosh 9½ feet wide.

The furnace was sold to Jefferson W. Glidden in 1832, and in 1836, the stack collapsed and was rebuilt. 3 In the 1840s, Jefferson’s brother Obadiah Glidden was brought on as a partner and the firm name was changed to Glidden & Company.

For 44 weeks of 1857, it produced 3,016 tons of iron. 3 The furnace blew out in 1876.

Kenton Furnace

Kenton Furnace was constructed in 1854 or 1856 by John Warring & Sons in the Hanging Rock Iron Region along Big White Oak Creek in Greenup County, Kentucky. 2 It featured a stack 36 feet high and a bosh 11 feet wide. For 1856, the furnace produced 1,500 tons of pig iron.

Latrobe Furnace

Latrobe Furnace was built in 1854 31 by H.F. Austin, H.S. Bundy, R.C. Hoffman, Valentine B. Horton, and W. McGhee along the never-finished Cincinnati & Hillsboro Railroad in the Hanging Rock Iron Region six miles east of Jackson, Ohio. 1 3 Owned by Bundy, Austin & Company and managed by Drew Ricker, the furnace featured a stack 35 feet high with a bosh 10 feet wide. For 44 weeks in 1857, it produced 2,025 tons of iron. The furnace blew out in 1885.

Laura Furnace

Laura Furnace was built in 1855 by the Gentry, Gunn & Company at the cost of $40,000 in the Between Rivers Iron Region in Golden Pond, Kentucky. 2 16 Owned by J.J. Tomlinson and managed by J.F. Gentry, it featured a stack 40 feet high with a bosh 10 feet wide. It employed as many as 130 men until the outbreak of the Civil War forced its closure. For 44 weeks in 1857, it produced 1,637 tons of pig iron. After the war, it was in blast intermittently but did not make sufficient profits and closed in 1872.

Lawrence Furnace

Lawrence Furnace, also referred to as Crane’s Nest Furnace, was constructed in 1834 by the J. Riggs & Company, comprised of Joseph Riggs, Andrew Ellison, Robert Hamilton, James Rodgers, and Dyer Burgess, in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Lawrence County, Ohio. 3 5 35 The construction of the furnace was overseen by John Campbell, who also provided a loan of $1,500. It featured a stack 35 feet high with a bosh 10 feet wide. Fueled by charcoal, its hot air blast was powered by a steam engine which allowed for a daily capacity of 15 tons. For 1856, the furnace produced 2,434 tons of iron.

Licking Furnace

Licking Furnace was constructed in 1859 by Swift’s Iron & Steel Works in Newport, Campbell County, Kentucky. 2 16 It was later rebuilt in 1869, featuring a stack that measured 65 feet in height with a bosh 16 feet wide. Fueled by Connellsville coke, its hot air blast was powered by a steam engine which allowed for an annual capacity of 17,000 tons which was primarily converted into steel at the same facility. Licking Furnace ceased its operations in 1888.

Lineport Furnace

Lineport Furnace was constructed in 1845 by Stacker and Raybure along the Cumberland River in Monroe County, Kentucky. 2 It was later owned by the Lewis, Irvin & Company of the Cumberland Iron Works of Stewart County, Tennessee.

Logan Furnace

Logan Furnace was constructed in 1853/55 in the Hanging Rock Iron Region along the Hocking Canal near Logan, Hocking County, Kentucky. 3 Owned by the Logan Furnace Company and managed by F. Case, it featured a stack 32 feet high with a bosh nine feet wide. For 1856, it produced 1,600 tons of machine iron.

Mahoning Furnace

Mahoning Furnace was constructed in 1845 along the Mahoning River and Canal in Lowellville, Ohio. 3 Owned by Alexander and John M. Crawford, and managed by Benjamin Crowther, it featured a stack 45 feet high with a bosh 12 feet wide. For 46 weeks of 1857, it produced 3,311 tons of mill iron.

Mammoth Furnace

Mammoth Furnace was constructed in 1845 by Charles and John Stacker in the Between Rivers Iron Region near Eddyville, Lyon County, Kentucky. 2 16 Owned by Graffenried & Company and managed by J.L. James, Jr., it featured a stone stack standing 31½ feet tall with a bosh nine feet wide. Fueled by charcoal, its air blast was powered by a steam engine and was capable of producing white, exceptionally hard pig iron. For 48 weeks in 1857, the Mammoth Furnace produced 1,514 tons. Its final blast occurred in 1874.

Directions: Mammoth Furnace can be seen from Forest Service Road 122 when water levels are low in Lake Barkley in Lyon County, Kentucky.

Marble Furnace

Marble Furnace was constructed in 1816 in the Hanging Rock Iron Region along Ohio Brush Creek in Adams County, Ohio. 3 Built and operated by Duncan McArthur, Thomas James, and Henry Massie, it went out of blast by 1836.

Mary Ann Furnace

Mary Ann Furnace was built in 1816 by David Moore along Rocky Fork Creek in Licking County, Ohio. 3 Moore had owned a forge about two miles south of the site. Fueled by charcoal, its cold blast was powered by water power and converted to steam power in 1847. The furnace was reportedly converting to using stone coal for fuel in 1849, but it burned down in 1850.

Massilon Furnace

Massilon Furnace was erected in 1854 by the Massillon Iron Company 100 yards south of Volcano Steam Furnace near Massillon, Ohio. 3 It featured a stack 41½ feet high with a bosh 14 feet wide. For 26 weeks in 1857, it produced 3,455 tons of iron.

Meander Furnace

Meander Furnace was built in 1857 in Austintown, Ohio. 3 Owned by Smith, Porter & Company and managed by Fuller, it featured a stack 38 feet high with a bosh 12 feet wide, with a daily production capacity of 16 tons of iron.

Mill Creek Furnace

Mill Creek Furnace is located in Youngstown, Ohio, and was constructed in 1835 by Daniel and James Eaton. 3 It featured a stack 30 feet high and a bosh nine feet wide. Fueled by charcoal and later coal, its air blast was powered by a steam engine and was capable of producing three tons per day. It last operated in 1855.

Directions: Mill Creek Furnace can be seen within Mill Creek Park in Youngstown, Ohio.

Milton Furnace

Milton Furnace was built in 1873 by the Milton Iron & Coal Company on East 2nd Street in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Wellston, Jackson County, Ohio. 3 Principals of the company were Alanson Robbins (President), J.E. Ferree (Secretary), L.W. French (Storekeeper), A.A. Austin, H.G. Lasley, J.W. Morely, and H.S. Williard. Fueled by stone coal, its hot blast was powered by a steam engine. Coal utilized in the furnace was initially tested at Orange Furnace which was successful.

The furnace operated until 1886 when F.E. Hinkley, a Chicago investor, attempted to make Wellston a boom town by selling lots and making massive profits. 3 After purchasing Milton Furnace, Hinkley went bankrupt and the furnace came under the ownership of the First National Bank of Chicago. It was sold to J.C. Clutts of Wellston Furnace, and operated by the Wellston Iron & Steel Company until 1916. Because of a disagreement among the shareholders, Milton Furnace was sold on June 5 to H.S. Williard and his son, H.S. Williard, Jr., which was operated until it closed in 1923.

Monitor Furnace

Monitor Furnace was constructed in 1868 by John Peters, William D. Kelly, and Sons the Grant in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Petersburg (today Coal Grove), Ohio. 2 3 5 32 It was owned by John Ballard, Joseph Bimpson, F.E. Duduit, Isaac Peters, John Peters, and William Simington.

The furnace was destroyed after a tank filled with malted ore exploded in July. 5 It was promptly rebuilt.

Monroe Furnace

Monroe Furnace is located in the Hanging Rock Iron Region of Ohio and was established in 1854 by John Campbell, William Bolles, and John and Isaac Peters. 1 2 3 31 32 It featured a stack 37 feet high with a bosh 14 feet wide. Fueled by charcoal, its hot air blast was powered by a steam engine and was capable of producing 20 tons of iron per day. For 43 weeks in 1857, it produced 3,700 tons of pig iron.

In December 1866, the Peterses sold their stake in the furnace to William M. Bolles, John Campbell, James Y. Gordon, P.S. Iams, and Thos. McGoverey for $129,000. The furnace eventually ceased operations in 1882.

Directions: Monroe Furnace can be seen from the Monroe Cemetery off of County Route 17 (Monroe Hollow Road) in Jackson County, Ohio.

Mt. Vernon Furnace

Mt. Vernon Furnace was constructed in 1833 or 1835 by John Campbell, Robert Hamilton, and Andrew Ellison in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Lawrence County, Ohio. 3 5 32 It marked Campbell’s inaugural venture as a proprietor and was where he first utilized waste gas in his operations. Owned by Campbell, Ellison & Company and managed by Robert Scott, it featured a stack 36 feet high with a bosh 10½ feet wide. Fueled by charcoal, its hot air blast was powered by a steam engine. For 26 weeks of 1855, it produced 2,144 tons of foundry iron.

After Ellison died in February 1866, the company’s name was changed to Campbell & Company. 5

Musquito Furnace

Musquito Furnace was built in 1812 by the Heaton brothers at Musquito Creek in Niles, Ohio. 3 The furnace was named after a daughter, Maria. Owned by the heirs of Warren Heaton, it featured a stack 32 feet high with a bosh nine feet wide. For 1856, it produced 600 tons of iron.

Nelson Furnace

Nelson Furnace was constructed in 1834 in the Rolling Fork Iron Region in Nelson County, Kentucky. Owned by J.B. Alexander & Company and managed by W. Patterson, it featured a stack 33 feet high with a bosh 10½ feet wide. 2 Fueled by charcoal, its hot air blast was powered by a steam engine. The site was rebuilt in 1853, and for 27 weeks in 1857, it produced 1,256 tons of forge iron.

As of 2023, only a partial stack remains.

Nolin Furnace

The Nolin Furnace, alternatively referred to as the Baker Furnace after its ironmaster, John H. Baker, was constructed in 1848 by Craddock & Company in the Green River Iron Region near Leitchfield in Edmonson County, Kentucky. 2 16 It featured a stack 40 feet in height. Fueled by charcoal, its air blast was powered by a steam engine. The furnace produced various products, including pig iron, kettles, and irons. Its final blast occurred in 1850.

Directions: Nolin Furnace can be observed from the Moutradier, Kentucky marina when the water levels in Nolin River Lake are low.

Norton Furnace

Norton Furnace was built in 1873 by the Norton Iron Works Company in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Ashland, Kentucky. 2 16 It had a 67-foot high iron shell stack with an inner diameter of 18 feet and was designed to burn stone coal. In 1874, the furnace produced 10,502 tons of iron, and by 1884, it had a yearly capacity of 20,000 tons.

In 1927, the furnace was rebuilt with a 14-foot, 6-inch hearth and was relined in 1928-29. 44 45 46 The Armco Steel Corporation acquired the Norton Iron Works in 1928, integrating it into their Ashland Works, which included the Ashland Furnace No. 2 and the Ashland Iron & Mining Company’s Open Hearth Steel Plant. In 1951, Armco installed new McKee stoves in the Norton furnace. 46

After the Amanda Furnace was completed in 1953, the Norton furnace was idled in May 1964, with the foundry continuing to operate using iron from the Amanda furnace. 46 It was eventually torn down in 1967. 47 At the time of its idling, the Norton furnace was the world’s oldest known operating blast furnace. 16

Oakland Furnace

Oakland Furnace was constructed in 1834 by the Kouns Brothers in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Boyd County, Kentucky. 2

Ohio Furnace

Ohio Furnace was constructed in 1824-25 by David Sinton, and T.W. Means in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Scioto County, Ohio. 3 It featured a bosh 10½ feet wide. Fueled by charcoal, its hot air blast was powered by a steam engine. It operated continuously until February 24, 1882.

Directions: The remains of Ohio Furnace can be found behind Ohio Furnace Baptist Church on County Route 8 (Ohio Furnace Road) in Scioto County, Ohio.

Old Steam Furnace

Old Steam Furnace was built by the Shreeves Brothers in 1825 in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Greenup County, Kentucky. 2 It was the fourth iron manufactury in the region. 32

Old Steam Furnace

Old Steam Furnace was erected in 1816 by Thomas Means, General McArthur, and Thomas James in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Adams County, Ohio. 3 Fueled by charcoal. The site was abandoned by 1826.

Ophir Furnace

Ophir Furnace was built in 1873-74 by H.S. Bundy and others in the Hanging Rock Iron Region four miles north of Jackson, Ohio. 3 31 The initial capital for the project was $80,000, with each share worth $500, with the principal investors being D. Wayland Evans, James Harper, Robert and George Hoop, Charles C. James, John D. Mitchell, and Mark Sternberger. Robert Hoop was elected President, and William S. Baker as Secretary.

Initially a cold blast furnace, it was switched to a hot blast in 1875. 31 The furnace operated until 1876 when its equipment was moved to Eliza Furnace.

Orange Furnace

Orange Furnace was built in 1864 in the Hanging Rock Iron Region at Pearl and Locust Streets in Jackson, Ohio. 1 3 31

In 1859, James L. Rice was digging for a water well and discovered coal under his property. 3 Peter Pickrel and Lewis Davis were employed to dig a coal shaft and build a furnace and were soon joined by David D. Dungan and Alanson Robbins from Orange Furnace. Augustus and James Watson of Cincinnati also became investors in the project. Equipment was partly sourced from the Young America Furnace.

The new furnace had three tuyeres and had a daily production capacity of eight tons per day, later increasing to ten tons per day. 3 Speculation losses in the Panic of 1873 led to its temporary closure, but on March 9, 1873, cold water was added to a hot boiler, which resulted in an explosion that destroyed much of the furnace.

Pactolus Furnace

Pactolus Furnace was constructed in 1824 by Joseph McMurtry and David L. Ward at the site of an earlier bloomery forge in the Hanging Rock Iron Region of Greenup County, Kentucky. 2 16 24 29 32 The forge, owned initially by Richard Deering, was designed to melt out-of-use salt kettles into hollow ware and featured steam boilers made by combining two such kettles. However, these boilers were prone to an explosion due to high pressures.

The first blast at the furnace, which occurred in 1825, lasted 66 days and damaged the stack. Later, pressure for the blast was provided by wooden tubs powered by a 5½-foot high dam on the Little Sandy River which allowed for a daily capacity of two tons. In 1824, William Ward purchased a half-interest in the furnace, and from 1826 to 1830, the two partners operated the plant in alternate months. 2 29 It was then leased to William Boyd until operations ceased after the winter of 1833-34.

Paducah Furnace

Paducah Furnace was built in 1899 by the Paducah Iron Company in Paducah, Kentucky. 16 It featured a stack 70 feet high with a bosh 14 feet wide. Fueled by coke, its hot air blast was powered by a steam engine which allowed for an annual capacity of 30,000 tons. Operations at the furnace began in 1900, smelting ore from Livingston, Lyon, and Trigg counties in Kentucky and Missouri. The furnace ruptured in 1903 and was demolished in 1907.

Paint Creek Furnace

Paint Creek Furnace was erected in 1812 by Nathaniel Massie in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Ross County, Ohio. 3 The furnace had solicited work from the Secretary of War William Eustis on August 27, 1812. Massie, who was also a part owner in a saw and grist mill with Richard Hulitt from 1805 onward, later went on to build Rapid Forge in 1815.

Pennsylvania Furnace

Pennsylvania Furnace was constructed in 1845 by George and Samuel Wurts in the Hanging Rock Iron Region of Greenup County, Kentucky. 16 It eventually came under the ownership of the Eastern Kentucky Railway, which transported its output to the Ohio River. It featured stack that measured 38 feet in height with a bosh 10¼ feet wide. In 1873, it produced a total of 2,213 tons of iron. The Pennsylvania Furnace was in operation until 1881.

Phoenix Furnace

Phoenix Furnace was built in 1854 along the Mahoning Canal 200 yards from Falcon Furnace in Youngstown, Ohio. 3 Owned by Lemeul Crawford of Cleveland and managed by N.M. Jones of Youngstown, it featured a stack 47 feet high and a bosh 12 feet wide. For 1856, it produced 3,000 tons of iron for the Nilestone Rolling Mill.

Pine Grove Furnace

Pine Grove Furnace, sometimes referred to as Union Landing Furnace, was built in 1828 by Robert Hamilton and Andrew Ellison, Sr., and Andrew Ellison, Jr. in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Lawrence County, Ohio. 3 5 32 Hamilton had migrated in 1817 from Fayette County, Pennsylvania, and worked as a clerk at the Brush Creek Furnace. 3 He married Nancy Ellison, daughter of John Ellison, on July 20, 1825.

Owned by Hamilton, Peebles & Cole, and managed by John F. Peebles, the furnace fired for the first time on January 1, 1829, 3 5 and blew on January 13. 5 It featured a stack 34 feet high with a bosh 10½ feet wide, with the stack rebuilt in 1834 and 1840. 3 Fueled by charcoal, its cold blast was powered by a steam engine, and the furnace had a daily production capacity of three or four tons and a weekly production capacity of 30 tons. Until 1834, most of the iron was made into stoves and castings, with Sunday devoted to making pig iron exclusively. 5

In 1840, Robert Hamilton became the sole owner of the Pine Grove Furnace with John Ellison, Joseph S. Peebles, and James A. Richey listed as partners. 5 The partnership lasted until a dispute in January 1844. Hamilton, believing that iron was one of God’s creations meant for the use of humans, decided to close the furnace on the Sabbath in accordance with his religious beliefs. 3 5 34

Several thousand dollars were then spent on improvements, including installing boilers on top of the stack so that the heat was first conveyed from the trundle head under the boilers to the hot blast. 5 This work and the introduction of the hot blast process in 1837 allowed for a daily production capacity of 18 tons per day.

Hamilton entered into a new partnership with John G. Peebles (Manager), John F. Steele (Clerk), and Samuel B. Hemstead (River Agent) under the name “R. Hamilton & Company on January 1, 1847, which lasted until October 25, 1850, when Steele died. 5 The firm was then known as Hamilton, Peebles & Company until March 1, 1854, when Hamilton sold half of the furnace to John G. Peebles, Joseph S. Peebles, and Samuel Coles under the name Hamilton, Peebles & Coles.

A new hearth was installed on January 12, 1886. 5 The furnace ceased operations on May 10, 1895, and work to tear down the abandoned Pine Grove Furnace began in April 1899 by Means, Kyle & Company. Cast iron components were melted down in their more modern Hamilton Furnace at Hanging Rock.

Pioneer Furnace

Pioneer Furnace was built in 1881 by Jay H. Northup, George C. Peck, and Thomas Cummings in Louisa, Kentucky. 2 It was the southernmost furnace within the Hanging Rock Iron Region and featured a stack 18 feet in height and a bosh 4½ feet wide. Pioneer Furnace began operations in 1882 but ceased operations in 1884.

Princess Furnace

Princess Furnace was constructed in 1876-77 by Thomas W. Means in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Boyd County, Kentucky. 2 It utilized stone coal as fuel due to the depletion of local timber for charcoal by the nearby Buena Vista Furnace. 16 The iron-jacketed stack ceased operation in 1878, and the furnace was sold in 1883 and moved to the Lowmoor, Virginia area.

Salt Lick/Gideon/Diamond Furnace

Salt Lick Furnace, named after a nearby salt works, was built in 1854-55 by the Salt Lick Furnace Company in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Jackson, Ohio. 1 3 31 R.C. Hoffman was the President of the company, J.J. Hoffman as the Secretary, and A. Gratton as Manager. 31 Other owners were Patrick Murdock, Mose Sternberger, Ezra Stewart, and R.H. Stewart. Managed by Peter Cowell, Salt Lick featured a stack 41½ feet high with a bosh 12 feet wide. 3 Fueled by stone coal, its blast was powered by a steam engine. For 26 weeks of 1856, it produced 1,000 tons of iron.

Salt Lick was the first in Jackson County to adopt the use of stone coal instead of charcoal, but the furnace was experimental and not all that efficient. 31

In 1857, J.W. Hanna, Peter Powell, and Moses Sternberger were added as partners to the furnace’s ownership, after which time the furnace became known as Gideon. 1 3 In 1860, Salt Lick Furnace was renamed to Diamond Furnace, but the furnace was not operated during the period. It passed into the hands of Smith, Tod & Company in 1864. It went out of blast on July 18, 1867.

Salt River Furnace

Salt River Furnace was constructed in 1832 by the J.B. Alexander & Company of Louisville in the Rolling Fork Iron Region in Bullitt County, Kentucky. 3 16 Owned by the J.B. Alexander & Company and managed by W. Patterson, it featured a stone stack 33 feet high with a bosh 10 feet wide. 2 Fueled by charcoal, its hot air blast was powered by a steam engine which allowed for a daily capacity of 12 tons. It may have been reactivated until 1870. 4

As of 2023, Salt River Furnace is in a state of re-discovery after being buried with dirt for decades.

Sarah Furnace

Sarah Furnace was built in 1877 by Hiram Campbell & Sons in the Hanging Rock Iron Region southeast of Ironton, Ohio. 2 3 5 It was named for Sarah Woodrow, the second wife of Hiram Campbell. 5 Located beyond the Alice Furnace, its first blast was in early March 1878. Fueled by coke from three Whitwell ovens at the site, its hot air blast was powered by a steam engine which allowed for a daily capacity of 30 tons. 5 32 It included a brick smokestack 107 feet in height. 5

In November 1885, W.C. Amos, James Bird, J.H. Moulton and others from Cincinnati took over operations at Sarah Furnace and began renovations, raising the furnace stack by 10 feet and extending the smokestack by 40 feet in early 1886. 5 New ling and boshes 14 feet wide were installed. A. Pleumer of the Etna Iron Works acquired Sarah for $52,000 in June 1887.

Finally, the Richey Iron & Steel Company was incorporated with a capital stock of $100,000 in May 1896, with the sole purpose to operate the Sarah Furnace. 5 Oscar Richey was made President with Col. Chas. Parrott designated secretary and treasurer. The new company released the furnace to the Kelly Nail & Iron Company which was established in 1882 by William D. Kelly, I. A. Kelly, and Oscar Richey. The resulting product was shipped to their plant in Ashland, Kentucky.

Scioto Furnace

Scioto Furnace was erected in 1828 by General William Kendall along the Scioto & Hocking Valley Railroad in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Scioto County, Ohio. 3 It featured a stack 35 feet high with a bosh 10 feet wide. After a year, the furnace was sold to Andrew Crawford, J.W. Glidden, Wells A. Hutchins, Sr., Charles Leonard, L.C. Robinson, J.M.G. Smith, and George S. Williams. For 48 weeks in 1854, it produced 3,041 tons of iron. The furnace went out of blast in 1892.

Stacker Furnace

Stacker Furnace, also called Olive Landing and Line Island, was constructed in 1845-46 by William Ewing and French Rayburn in the Between Rivers Iron Region near Cadiz, Kentucky. 2 16 Samuel Stacker thereafter owned it. Fueled by charcoal and powered by a steam engine, the furnace operated intermittently until 1856.

Star Furnace

Star Furnace was constructed in 1848 by A. McCullough and Lampton Brothers in the Hanging Rock Iron Region near Rush in Carter County, Kentucky. 2 29 It featured a stack 36 feet high with a bosh 11½ feet wide which allowed for a daily capacity of 12 tons. It utilized 185 bushels of charcoal and 3,990 pounds of ore to produce approximately 1,500 to 2,600 tons of iron per year through 1869.

The discovery of No. 7 coal on the property led to a transition from charcoal to coal as a fuel source in May 1870. Despite the success of this technical change, the Lampton Brothers went bankrupt in July. In 1874, the Star Furnace was sold to the Norton Iron Works of Ashland, which utilized the land for its coal and ore resources.

Star Furnace

Star Furnace was built in 1865-66 by the Star Furnace Company in the Hanging Rock Iron Region along East Broadway in Jackson, Ohio. 3 31 The firm was comprised of Isaac Brown (President), Alanson Robbins, (Secretary), John M. Jones(Manager), James Chesnut, D.D. Dungan, and B. Kahn. Bernard Kahn succeeded Isaac Brown after he died on August 8, 1889. Jones was succeeded by L.V. Brown, son of Isaac.

Star Furnace was the first in the county to feature an iron stack, with machinery for operations coming from the closed Oak Ridge Furnace in Lawrence County. 3 It employed 75 men at the furnace, 75 men at the coal mine, and 50 men at the ore field, and it had a daily production capacity of 45 tons per day which was sold for $15/ton. The furnace was rebuilt in 1912 at the cost of $150,000, which allowed for a daily production capacity of 85 tons per day.

The furnace closed in 1923 and was dismantled in August 1935. 3

Steam Furnace

Steam Furnace was built in 1824 by the Shreve Brothers in the Hanging Rock Iron Region near Wurtland, Kentucky. Wurtz, Spaulding & Company and managed by J.S. Jones, it featured a stack 28 feet tall with a bosh 8½ feet wide. Fueled by charcoal, it was powered by a steam engine and was the first blast furnace in the region to utilize steam power for its blowing engines rather than relying on water, 2 16 which allowed for a daily capacity of three tons. Steam Furnace was abandoned after 1860.

Steam Furnace

Steam Furnace was built circa 1815 by James Rodgers and the Pittsburg Steam Engine Company in the Hanging Rock Iron Region near Peebles, Ohio. 3 The furnace was named because of the machinery that was propelled by a steam engine.

Suwanee Furnace

Suwanee Furnace was built in 1851 by William Kelly in the Between Rivers Iron Region near Kuttawa in Lyon County, Kentucky. 2 16 It featured a brick stack that measured 35 feet high with a bosh 10 feet wide. It was fueled by charcoal and powered by a steam engine. For 44 weeks in 1855, it produced 1,700 tons of pig iron which was used in Pittsburg for the production of steel and Cincinnati for making boilerplates. In 1857, the Suwanee Furnace produced a total of 1,700 tons of iron, which was its final year of operation.

Talmadge Furnace

Talmadge Furnace was erected in 1819 or 1830 in Summit County, Ohio. 3 Fueled by charcoal, it went out of blast in 1835.

Trigg Furnace

Trigg Furnace was constructed in 1871 by the Daniel Hillman Iron Company in the Between Rivers Iron Region in Trigg County, Kentucky. 2 16 The brick and stone furnace was fueled by charcoal with its hot air blast powered by a steam engine. Most of the iron produced was processed at the Tennessee Rolling Mills three miles northwest. Operations ceased by 1878.

Triumph Furnace

The Triumph Iron & Coal Company was formed in March 1873 with a total capital of $100,000 in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Jackson County, Ohio. 3 Principals in the venture included John D. Davis, Lot Davis, T.L. Hughes, Eben Jones, Thomas T. Jones of the Jefferson and Globe Furnaces, and Jacob Long. A brickyard was completed on April 17, 1873, and a coal shaft was dug by July 24, but the coal was found to be worthless for furnace operations. The company disbanded on November 13, with the equipment sold to Huron Furnace.

Tropic Furnace

Tropic Furnace was erected in 1873 by the Tropic Furnace Company in the Hanging Rock Iron Region at the junction of Athens and Chillicothe Street in Jackson, Ohio. 3 31 The company was founded on March 10, 1873, with Ezekial T. Jones as President and Daniel D. Morgan as Secretary. Jones had previously worked at Orange Furnace and then at a furnace in Clay County, Indiana, while Morgan had been a manager of Cambria Furnace.

The furnace was idled from 1875 to 1879 until it closed in the spring of 1883 for repairs. 31 It reopened and closed for good in 1896. 3

Tuscarawas Furnace

Tuscarawas Furnace was built in 1830 by the Christmas, Hazlett & Company in Zoar, Ohio. 3 Later sold to the town, it ran until 1846 when the timber failed to blow out.

Underwood Furnace

Underwood Furnace was built in 1846-47 by James C. Sloo and Leonard White in the Between Rivers Iron Region near Tiline in Livingston County, Kentucky. 2 16 The brick and stone furnace was fueled by charcoal with its hot air blast powered by a steam engine. Pig iron was shipped to fabricators via steamboat. In 1848, operations at the Underwood Furnace were transferred to the nearby Hopewell Furnace.

Union Furnace

Union Furnace was erected in 1826 by the James Rodgers & Company in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Lawrence County, Ohio. 3 5 Its principal investors were James Rodgers, Valentine Fear, John Means, and John Sparks. It featured a stack 35 feet high with a bosh 10 feet wide. Fueled by charcoal, its cold blast was most likely water powered. It had a daily production capacity of two to three tons daily. During the week, the molten iron was poured into various molds such as stoves and hollowware while on Sunday, the molten iron was run into pigs. For the year 1854, it produced 2,000 tons of iron.

Volcano Steam Furnace

Volcano Steam Furnace was built in 1855 in Youngstown, Ohio. 3 Owned by the Volcano Steam Company and Managed by Charles A. Crandell, it featured a stack 45 feet high with a bosh 14 feet wide. For 1856, it produced 4,755 tons of iron.

Vinton Furnace

Vinton Furnace is located in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Vinton County, Ohio, and was constructed in 1853-54 by the Clark, Culberson & Company. 3 Owned by the Means, Clark & Company, it featured a stack 32½ high with a bosh 11 feet wide. The stack was replaced with one 50 feet tall built of iron in 1873. Fueled by charcoal, its hot air blast was powered by a steam engine which allowed for a daily capacity of 10 tons that was later raised to 20 tons. For seven weeks in 1857, the furnace produced 3,100 tons of iron. It remained in operation until 1880.

Directions: Vinton Furnace is located in the Mead Sanctuary on Stone Quarry Road in Vinton County, Ohio.

Watts Furnaces

Watts Furnaces were constructed in 1890-93 by the Watts Steel & Iron Syndicate in Middlesboro, Kentucky. The pair of blast furnaces featured iron shell stacks 75 feet in height with a bosh 17 feet wide. 16 Fueled by coke, its hot air blast was powered by a steam engine which allowed for a daily capacity of 400 tons. The Watts Furnaces remained in operation until 1898.

Wellston Furnaces

Wellston Furnaces were built in 1875 by the Wellston Coal & Iron Company in the Hanging Rock Iron Region of Wellston, Ohio. 3 The firm was organized by Harvey Wells and a group of investors from Washington Court House. Financial complications ensued and the furnaces did not operate until 1879 when H.S. Bundy took control and operated them until 1884. A group of investors, led by T.J. Morgan, William T. McClintock, and Amos Smith founded the Wellston Coal Company and purchased the Wellston Furnaces complex who then leased it to King, Gilbert, and Warner of Columbus. 3 J.C. Clutts joined the firm in 1888 as General Manager.

Wellston Coal Company went into receivership in 1893, with H.S. Williard as the receiver, until July 12, 1894, when the furnaces were purchased by the Wellston Iron & Steel Company. 3 The newly organized company was organized by J.C. Clutts (President), H.S. Williard (Secretary), and L.C. Vogelsang (General Manager). Williard bought out Clutts in 1905 and then added M.L. Sternberger as a major new shareholder and as President.

The Wellston Furnaces closed in 1923 and were dismantled in 1929. 3

Young America Furnace

Young America Furnace, named after the railroad station in Hamden, was built in 1856 in the Hanging Rock Iron Region of Jackson County, Ohio. 3 31 Principals included James H. Miller as President and Jesse W. Laird as Secretary and Financial Manager. It featured a stack 48 feet high with a bosh 13 feet wide and had a daily production capacity of 14 tons of iron.

Zaleski Furnace

Zaleski Furnace was erected in 1858 in the Hanging Rock Iron Region near Zaleski, Ohio. 3 Owned by the Zaleski Iron Company, with H.B. Robson serving as the financial agent and Walters as the manager, it featured a stack 46 feet high with a bosh 13 feet wide. It was intended that three stacks would be built, with the furnace operating on stone coal.

Others

  • Belfont Furnace was constructed in 1867 by the Belfont Iron Works in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Lawrence County, Ohio.
  • Clyde Furnace was constructed in 1832 and abandoned in 1838 in Ohio.
  • Concord Furnace was erected in 1825 or 1828 in Ohio. 3 Fueled by charcoal, it had a weekly production capacity of 30 tons.
  • Coneaut Furnace was built in 1832 in Ohio. It featured a stack 30 feet high with a bosh 7½ feet wide. It ran for several years on bog iron.
  • Craft Furnace was built in the Hanging Rock Iron Furnace in Hocking County, Ohio.
  • Gore Furnace was located in the Hanging Rock Iron Furnace in Hocking County, Ohio.
  • Grant Furnace was erected in 1869 by W.D. Kelly and Sons in Lawrence County, Ohio.
  • Hanging Rock Iron Furnace was built by John Campbell circa 1833 in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Hanging Rock, Ohio. 3 Its iron was used to make stoves for The Plymouth, B. Estate, and Great Western brands.
  • Helen Furnace was constructed in the Hanging Rock Iron Furnace in Hocking County, Ohio.
  • Himrod Furnace was located in Mahoning County, Ohio.
  • Lee Furnace was constructed in the Hanging Rock Iron Furnace in Hocking County, Ohio.
  • Middleburgh Furnace was a charcoal-fueled furnace constructed in 1836.
  • Middlebury Furnace was a charcoal-fueled furnace built in Middlebury, Summit County, Ohio.
  • Miller Creek Furnace was constructed at the head of Miller’s Creek in the Red River Iron Region near Irvine, Estill County, Kentucky.
  • Old Bucknor Furnace was constructed in the Green River Iron Region along Battish Creek in Muhlenburg County, Kentucky.
  • Old Furnace was built near Jamestown in Russell County, Kentucky. It was reportedly in operation in the 1820s and 1830s and utilized iron ore found in red clay deposits near Creelsborough-Jamestown Road. 3
  • Railroad Furnace was erected in 1825 by Thorndike & Drury of Boston and idled in 1838.
  • Tilden Furnace was constructed in 1854 and owned by Dr. Tilden of Cleveland, Ohio. It was fueled by charcoal and Lake Superior ore.
  • Vermillion Furnace was built by the Geauga Iron Company in 1834 and sold in 1835 to Wilkeson & Company. It operated until 1837 on bog ore.
  • Winona Furnace was located in the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Hocking County, Ohio.
  • Zoar Furnace was the second of two furnaces built on the Tuscarawas River near Zoar, Ohio. Fueled by charcoal, it blew out before 1850.


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Sources

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